Page:EB1911 - Volume 22.djvu/951

From Wikisource
Jump to navigation Jump to search
This page needs to be proofread.

philosophy and theology were antithetical and irreconcilable. Raymond declares that the book of Nature and the Bible are both Divine revelations, the one general and immediate, the other specific and mediate. The Editio Princeps of the book, which found many imitators, is undated but probably belongs to 1484; there are many subsequent editions, one by I. F. von Seidel as late as 1852. In 1595 the Prologus was put on the Index for its declaration that the Bible is the only source of revealed truth. Montaigne (Essays, bk. ii. ch. xii., “ An Apologie of Raymond Sebond ”) tells how he translated the book into French and found “the conceits of the author to be excellent, the con texture of his work well followed, and his project full of pietie .... His drift is bold, and his scope adventurous, for he undertaketh by humane and naturall reasons, to establish and verine all the articles of Christian religion against Atheists.”

See D. Beulet, Un Inconnu célebre: recherche historiques el criligues sur Raymond de Sabunde (Paris, 1875).

RAYMUND, prince of Antioch (1099-1149), was the son of William VI., count of Poitou. On the death of Bohemund II. of Antioch (q.v.), the principality devolved upon his daughter, Constance, a child of some three years of age (1130). Fulk, the king of Jerusalem, and, as such, guardian of Antioch, was concerned to find a husband for her, and sent envoys to England to offer her hand to Raymund, who was then at the court of Henry I. Raymund accepted the offer, and stealing in disguise through southern Italy, for fear of apprehension by Roger of Sicily, who claimed the inheritance of Antioch as cousin of Bohemund I., he reached Antioch in II 3 5. Here he was married to Constance by the patriarch, but not until he had done him homage and fealty. The marriage excited the indignation of Alice, the mother of Constance, who had been led by the patriarch to think that it was she whom Raymund desired to wed; and the new prince had thus to face the enmity of the princess dowager and her party. In 1137 he had also to face the 'advent of the eastern emperor, John Comnenus, who had come south partly to recover Cilicia from Leo, the prince of Armenia, but partly, also, to assert his rights over Antioch. Raymund was forced to do homage, and even to promise to cede his principality as soon as he was recompensed by a new fief, which John promised to carve for him in the Mahommedan territory to the east of Antioch. The expedition of 1138, in which Raymund joined with John, and which was to conquer this territory, naturally proved a failure: Raymund was not anxious to help the emperor to acquire new territories, when their acquisition only meant for him the loss of Antioch; and John had to return unsuccessful to Byzantium, after vainly demanding from Raymund the surrender of the citadel of Antioch. There followed a struggle between Raymund and the patriarch. Raymund was annoyed by the homage which he had been forced to pay to the patriarch in II 3 5; and the dubious validity of the patriarch's election offered a handle for opposition. Eventually Raymund triumphed, and the patriarch was deposed (1139). In 1142 John Comnenus returned to the attack; but Raymund refused to recognize or renew his previous submission; and John, though he ravaged the neighbourhood of Antioch, was unable to effect anything against him. When, however, Raymund demanded from Manuel, who had succeeded John in 114 3, the cession of 'some of the Cilician towns, he found that he had met his match. Manuel forced him to a humiliating visit to Constantinople, during which he renewed his oath of homage and promised to receive a Greek patriarch. The last event of importance in Raymund's life was the visit to Antioch in 1148 of Louis VII. and his wife Eleanor, Raymund's niece. Raymund sought to prevent Louis from going south to Jerusalem, and to induce him to stay in Antioch and help in the conquest of Aleppo and Caesarea. Perhaps for this end he acquired an influence overihis niece, which was by some interpreted as a guilty intimacy. At any rate Louis hastily left Antioch, and Raymund was balked in his plans. In 1149 he fell in battle during an expedition against Nureddin. Raymund is described by William of Tyre (the main authority for his career) as handsome and affable; pre-eminent in the use of arms and military experience; lfitteratorum, licet ipse illiterates esset, cullor (he caused the Chanson des chétifs to be composed); a regular churchman and a faithful husband; but headstrong, irascible and unreasonable, with too great a passion for gambling (bk. xiv. c. xXi.). For his career see Rey, in the Revue de Vorienl latin, vol. iv. (E. BR.)

RAYMUND OF TOULOUSE (sometimes also called Raymund of St Giles, after a town to the south of Nimes), count of Provence, one of the leaders of the first Crusade. According to an Armenian authority, he had lost an eye on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem before the first Crusade; but the statement probably rests on the fact that he was one-eyed, vir monoculus. He is also recorded to have fought against the Moors in Spain before 1096; and it is certain that he was the first of the princes of the West to take the cross after Pope Urban's sermon at Clermont. The oldest and the richest of the crusading princes, the count of Provence started, at the end of October 1096, with a large company, which included his wife, his son, and Adhemar, bishop of Puy, the Papal Legate. His march lay by Ragusa and Scutari to Durazzo, whence he struck eastward, along the route also used by Bohemund, to Constantinople. At the end of April 1097 he was with difficulty induced to take a somewhat negative oath of fealty to Alexius; for the obstinacy which was one of his characteristics, coupled perhaps with some hope of acquiring new territories, made him reluctant to submit like the other crusaders to Alexius. He was present at Nicaea and Dorylaeum; but he first showed his hand in October 1097, when, as the army neared Antioch, and a rumour was spread that Antioch had been deserted by the Turks, he sent a detachment in advance to occupy the city-an action which presaged his future difficulties with Bohemund, the would-be prince of Antioch. In the siege of Antioch (which was far from having been deserted) Raymund played his part. When the city was taken by Bohemund (June 1098), the count garrisoned the palatium Cassiani (the palace of the emir, Yagi Sian) and the tower over the Bridge Gate. He lay ill during the second siege of Antioch by Kerbogha; but in his camp a great spiritualistic activity culminated in the discovery of the Holy Lance by the Provencals. The miracle stimulated the Crusaders to defeat Kerbogha: the Lance itself, discovered by the Provencals and carried henceforward by their count, became a valuable asset in Raymund's favour; and he began to put difficulties in the Way of Bohemund's retention of Antioch, obstinately alleging the oath to Alexius, and refusing to surrender the positions in the city which he had occupied. A struggle thus arose between the Provencals and the Normans, partly with regard to the genuineness of the Lance, which the Normans naturally doubted, and partly with regard to the possession of Antioch-the real issue at stake. Raymund was the first of the princes to leave Antioch, moving southward in the autumn of 1098 to the siege of Marra, but leaving a detachment of his troops in Antioch. With Bohemund left behind in Antioch; with the possession of the Holy Lance to give him prestige; and with the wealth which he had at his disposal, the count of Provence now definitely began to figure as the leader of the Crusade. If he could have consented to leave Bohemund in possession of Antioch and push southward, he might have achieved much. But he could not stomach the greatness of Bohemund; and when the Normans turned his troops out of Antioch in January 1099, he marched from Marra (which had been captured in December 1098) into the emirate of Tripoli, and began the siege of Arca (February 1099), evidently with the idea of founding a power in Tripoli which would check the expansion of Bohemund's principality to the south. The siege of Arca was protracted; and the selfish policy of the count, which thus deferred the march to Jerusalem, lost him all support from the mass of the crusaders. A wave of indignation in the ranks, and the inducements which the emir of Tripoli offered to the other princes, forced Raymund to desist from the siege (May 1098), and to march southwards to Jerusalem. After the capture of Jerusalem, Raymund was offered, but refused, the advocacy of the Holy Sepulchre. He alleged his reluctance to rule in the city in which Christ had suffered: