Page:EB1911 - Volume 25.djvu/326

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310
SOCIETIES, LEARNED
Journal. The Selborne Soc. (1885) promotes nature study and

issues a Mag. The foundation in 1821 of the Society for the Encouragement of the Useful Arts in Scotland, now usually known as the Royal Scottish Society of Arts, for the promotion of the useful arts and such branches of science as bear upon them, was due to Sir D. Brewster, Sir J. Mackintosh and others; it was incorporated in 1841, and has published Transactions since that year.

The leading provincial societies of Great Britain of a general character are as follows:—Aberdeen, Nat. Hist. Soc. (1863), Trans.; Phil. Soc. (1840). Alloa, Soc. of Nat. Hist. and Arch. (1863), Proc. (1865, &c.). Banff, Banffshire Field Club and Sc. Soc. (1880), Proc. Bath, Nat. Hist, and Antiq. Field Club (1866), Proc. (1867, &c.); Roy. Lit. and Sc. Inst. (1825), Proc.; Bath Lit. and Phil. Assn. Bedford, Bedfordshire Nat. Hist. Soc. (1875), Trans. Belfast, Nat. Hist. and Phil. Soc. (1821), Proc. (1852, &c.), museum; Naturalists’ Field Club (1863), Proc. (1875, &c.). Berwickshire Naturalists’ Club (1831), Proc. (1834, &c.). Birkenhead, Lit. and Sc. Soc. (1857). Birmingham, Nat. Hist. and Phil. Soc. (1858), Trans.; Birmingham and Midland Institute Sc. Soc. (1870), Trans. of archaeological section (1871, &c.); Phil. Soc. (1876) has a fund for promotion of original research, Proc.; Midland Union of Nat. Hist. Societies (1877), Midland Naturalist. Bolton, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (1871). Bradford, Phil. Soc. (1865); Bradford Scientific Assn. (1875), Journal. Brighton, Brighton and Hove Nat. Hist. and Phil. Soc. (1855), Proc. Bristol, Naturalists' Soc. (1862), Proc. (1866, &c.). Burnley, Lit. and Sc. Club (1873), Trans. Burton-on-Trent, Nat. Hist. and Arch. Soc. (1876), Trans. Cambridge, Phil. Soc. (1819; incorporated 1832), for the promotion of philosophy and natural science, owns museum and library, Proc. (1843, &c.), Trans. (1821, &c.). Cardiff, Naturalists’ Soc. (1867), Trans. Chester, Soc. of Nat. Sc., Lit. and Arts (1871). Cork, Royal Inst. (1807), library; Cuvierian and Arch. Soc. (1836). Cornwall Royal Inst., at Truro (1818), devoted to natural philosophy, natural history, and antiquities, Journal (1864, &c.); Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Soc., at Falmouth (1833; founded by the daughters of R. W. Fox and others), for the encouragement of science and the fine and industrial arts, Trans. (1835, &c.). Cumberland Assoc. for the Advancement of Lit. and Sc. (1876), provided a means of union for the local societies of Cumberland and Westmoreland, Trans. Derbyshire Arch. and Nat. Hist. Soc. (1878), Journal. Derry Nat. Hist. and Phil. Soc. (1870). Devonshire Assoc. for the Advancement of Sc. (1862). Dorset Nat. Hist. and Antiq. Field Club (1875), Proc. Dumfriesshire and Galloway Sc., Nat. Hist. and Antiq. Soc.. (1876), Trans. Dundee, Naturalists' Soc. (1873). Eastbourne, Nat. Hist. Soc. (1867), Proc. (1869, &c.). East of Scotland Union of Naturalists' Societies (1884), Trans. Ebbw Vale, Lit. and Sc. Inst. (1850). Elgin, Elgin and Morayshire Lit. and Sc. Assoc. (1836). Essex Field Club (1880), museums at Stratford and Chingford. Exeter, Naturalists' Club and Arch. Assoc. (1862). Glasgow, Roy. Phil. Soc. (1802), Proc. (1844, &c.); Nat. Hist. Soc. (1851), Proc. (1868, &c.); Soc. of Field Naturalists (1872), Trans. (1872, &c.); Andersonian Naturalists' Soc. Gloucester, Lit. and Sc. Assoc. (1838). Greenock, Phil. Soc. (1861). Halifax, Phil. and Lit. Soc. (1830), museum and library. Hereford, Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club, Hereford Pomona and Trans. (1866, &c.). Hertfordshire Nat. Hist. Soc. and Field Club, formed in 1879 from the Watford Nat. Hist. Soc. (1875), Trans. High Wycombe, Nat. Hist. Soc. (1865), Magazine (1866, &c.). Hull, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (1822), Trans. (1824, &c.). Inverness, Sc. Soc. and Field Club (1875). Isle of Wight Phil. and Sc. Soc. (1850). Kent (East) Nat. Hist. Soc. at Canterbury (1858), Trans. Leeds, Phil. and Lit. Soc. (1820); Naturalists' Club (1870), Trans. Leicester, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (1835), Trans. Lewes, Lewes and East Sussex Nat. Hist. Soc. (1864). Liverpool, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (1812; united with Nat. Hist. Soc. in 1844), Proc. (1845, &c.); Philomathic Soc. (1825), Trans.; Polytechnic Soc. (1838), Journal (1838, &c.); Naturalists’ Field Club (1860). Manchester, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (1781), two sections, one physical and mathematical, the other for microscopy and natural history—the original statements respecting the atomic theory were given by Dalton in the Memoirs (1789, &c.), also Proc.; Field Naturalists' and Arch. Soc. (1860), Proc.; Scientific Students’ Assoc. (1861). Montrose, Nat. Hist. and Antiq. Soc. (1836), museum. Newbury, District Field Club (1870), Trans. (1871, &c.). Newcastle-on-Tyne, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (1793), library; Northumberland, Durham and Newcastle Nat. Hist. Soc. (1829), a museum (opened in 1884), Trans. Norfolk, Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' Soc. (1869), Trans. (1870, &c.). Nottingham, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (1864); Naturalists' Soc. (1852), Trans. Orkney Antiq. and Nat. Hist. Soc. (1837), museum. Oxford, Ashmolean Nat. Hist. Soc. (1828), Proc. Paisley, Phil. Institution (1808), free library and museum; Mr Coats presented his observatory in 1882. Penzance, Nat. Hist. and Antiq. Soc. (1839), museum, Proc. (1845, &c.). Perth, Lit. and Antiq. Soc. (1784); Perthshire Soc. of Nat. Sc. (1867), Proc. (1869, &c.), the Scottish Naturalist (1870, &c.). Peterhead, Buchan Field Club (1887), Trans. Plymouth, Plymouth Inst. and Devon and Cornwall Nat. Hist. Soc. (1812), museum, art gallery and library. Preston Sc. Soc., affiliated with British Assn. Richmond, Richmond and North Riding Naturalists' Field Club (1863), Trans. Ripon, Naturalists' Club and Sc. Assoc. (1882). Rochdale Lit. and Sc. Soc., Trans. Scarborough, Phil. and Arch. Soc. (1831), museum and library. Severn Valley Naturalists' Field Club, at Bridgenorth (1863). Sheffield, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (1822); Museums Assoc. (1889), Proc. and Journ. Shetland Lit. and Sc. Soc. at Lerwick (1861). Shropshire and North Wales Nat. Hist. and Antiq. Soc. (1835), at Shrewsbury. Somersetshire Arch. and Nat. Hist. Soc. at Taunton (1849), Proc. (1851, &c.). Southampton, Hartley Institution (founded under bequest of H. R. Hartley in 1859, incorporated 1862), for the promotion of scientific, antiquarian and Oriental studies and the fine arts, owns a museum and library. Staffordshire (North) Field Club and Arch. Soc. (founded as a natural history society in 1865; enlarged 1877), meets at Stone, Trans. Stirling, Nat. Hist. and Arch. Soc. (1878), Trans. Stockport, Soc. of Naturalists (1884), Trans. Suffolk Inst. of Arch. and Nat. Hist., at Bury St Edmunds (1848), Proc. (1848, &c.), The East Anglian (1859, &c.). Swansea, Royal Institution of South Wales (founded 1835; incorporated 1883), with a museum and library, promotes natural history and applied science, literature and fine arts, local history and antiquities. Tamworth, Nat. Hist., Geolog. and Antiq. Soc. (1871). Teign Naturalists' Field Club (1858). Torquay, Nat. Hist. Soc. (1844), museum and library. Tweedside and Kelso Physical and Antiq. Soc. (1834). Warrington, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (founded in 1870 upon the Micr. Soc.). Warwickshire Nat. Hist. and Arch. Soc. (1836); Warwickshire Field Club (1854). Whitby, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (1822). Whitehaven Sc. Assn., Journal. Wiltshire Arch. and Nat. Hist. Soc. at Devizes (1853), Wiltshire Magazine (1853, &c.). Windsor, Windsor and Eton Sc. Soc., Trans. Witney, Nat. Hist. and Lit. Soc. (1858). Yorkshire Phil. Soc. (1822), the museum in the grounds of St Mary's Abbey, York, contains a remarkable collection of Roman remains; Naturalists' Union of the natural history and scientific societies of the county (founded in 1861 as the West Riding Consolidated Naturalists' Soc., reorganized in 1876), publishes the Naturalist

(1876, &c.), Trans.
Australia and New Zealand: Adelaide, Phil. Soc., Trans. (1865,

&c.); South Australian Inst. (1836), library; Roy. Soc. of S. Australia (1853), Trans., Proc., Reports. Auckland, Auckland Inst. Brisbane, Queensland, Phil. Soc. (1860), now the Roy. Soc. of Queensland (1884), Proc. Christchurch, Phil. Inst. Hobart Town, Roy. Soc. of Tasmania, Papers and Proc. (1843, &c.). Melbourne, Roy. Soc. of Victoria, Trans. and Proc. (1854, &c.); Nat. Hist. Soc.; Zool. and Acclim. Soc., Proc. (1872, &c.). Sydney, Roy. Soc. of N.S. Wales (1821), Proc. (1867, &c.); Linnean Soc. of N.S. Wales (1874), Proc. (1875, &c.); Phil. Soc., Trans. (1862, &c.); Australasian Assoc. for Advancement of Sc., Reports of Annual Meetings (held at different place each year) (1888, &c.). Wellington, New Zealand Inst., Trans.

and Proc. (1868, &c.).
Canada: Halifax, Nova Scotia Inst. of Sc., Proc. and Trans. (1862,

&c.). Montreal, Nat. Hist. Soc. of Montreal (1827), Canadian Rec. of Sc. Ottawa, Roy. Soc. of Canada, Trans. (3 ser.) (1882, &c.); Lit. and Sc. Soc. (1870), Trans. (1897, &c.). St John, Nat. Hist. Soc. of N. Bruns. (1862), Bulletins (26 vols.). Toronto, Canadian Inst. (1849), Trans. and Proc. (1852, &c.); Roy. Canadian Acad. of Arts (1880).

Winnipeg, Hist. and Sc. Soc.
South Africa: Cape Town, South Afr. Phil. Soc., Trans. (1878 &c.).
West Indies: Kingston, Roy. Soc. of Arts of Jamaica, Trans. (1854, &c.); Port of Spain, Sc. Assoc. of Trinidad, Proc. (1866, &c.).
India, &c.: Calcutta, Asiatic Soc. of Bengal (1784), Journal

(1832, &c.; 1865, &c.), Bibl. Indica (1848, &c.), Mem. (1905, &c.). Singapore, Roy. Asiatic Soc. (Straits Br.), Journal (1880, &c.). Shanghai, Roy. Asiatic Soc. (N. China Br.), Journal (1857, &c.). Cairo, Inst. Egyptien (1859). Mauritius, Roy. Soc. of Arts and Sc.,

Proc. (1846, &c.) and Trans. (1848, &c.).
United States.—The Smithsonian Institution (q.v.), the most

important scientific body in America, is dealt with in a separate article. The first scientific society in the United States originated from a Proposal for Promoting Useful Knowledge among the British Plantations, issued by Dr Franklin in 1743. In the following year the American Philosophical Society was founded at Philadelphia, with Thomas Hopkinson as president and Franklin as secretary. With it was united on 2nd January 1769 another Philadelphia society, The Junto (1758), the records of which have been preserved. The American Philosophical Society is still in vigorous life, and is an exclusively scientific body and the oldest organized society in the United States for the pursuit of philosophical investigation in its broadest sense. It publishes Transactions (4to, 1771, &c.) and Proceedings (8vo, 1838, &c.). Second in point of date comes the American Academy of Arts and Sciences of Boston, incorporated in 1780 with the object of furthering the study of the antiquities and natural history of the country. Its Memoirs (4to, 1785, &c.) and Proceedings (8vo, 1846, &c.) are still published. The Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences was incorporated at New Haven in 1799. At first only devoted to matters connected with the state of Connecticut, it now embraces the whole field of the sciences and useful arts. It has issued Memoirs (1810-1816), and now publishes Transactions (1866, &c.). One of the leading societies in the United States, the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, founded in 1812 and incorporated in 1817, possesses an excellent library; the natural history museum is especially rich in conchology. It issues a Journal (1817, &c.) and Proceedings (1843, &c.). The American Entomological Society is merged with it. The Franklin Institute of the same city, incorporated in 1825, possesses a library, gives lectures and issues a Journal (1826, &c.). The Boston Society of Natural History was

founded upon the Linnean Society (1814) in 1830 and incorporated