Page:EB1911 - Volume 25.djvu/329

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313
SOCIETIES, LEARNED
Trans. (4to, 1868, &c.). Dorpat, Naturforsch. Ges. (1853), Sitzungsber.

(1853, &c.) Archiv (1854, &c.) and Trudy (1884, &c.); Gelehrte Estnische Ges., Verhandl. (1840, &c.), Schriften (1863-1869) and Sitzungsber. (1861, &c.). Ekaterinburg, Soc. of Naturalists (1870), Zapiski. Helsingfors, Societas pro Fauna et Flora Fennica (1821), Acta (1875, &c.); Finska Vetenskaps-Soc. (1838), three sections. Kaminietz, Naturforsch. Ges. Kazan, Soc. of Naturalists at University, Protokoly (1870, &c.) and Trudy (1872, &c.). Kharkoff, Soc. of Scientists at Univ., Trudy (1870, &c.) and Protokoly (1870, &c.). Kieff, Soc. of Naturalists, Zapiski. Lemberg, Polish Soc. for the Advancement of Science (1901). Moscow, Imp. Soc. of the Friends of Nat. Hist., Anthrop., &c. (1863), Izviestiya or Bull. (1865, &c.); Soc. Imp. des Naturalistes (1805), Mém. (4to, 1806) and Bull. (8vo, 1829, &c.). Odessa, Soc. of Naturalists of New Russia, Zapiski (1872, &c.) and Protokoly (1874, &c.). Riga, Naturforsch.-Ver. (1845), Corr.-Blatt (1846, &c.) and Arbeiten (1865, &c.). St Petersburg, Imp. Soc. of Naturalists (1868), Trudy (1870, &c.). Saratov, Soc. of Naturalists (1895), Trudy (1899, &c.). Warsaw, Soc. of Friends of Sc., Roczniki (1802-1828); Warsaw Naturalists' Soc. (1889).

Rumania.—Bucharest, Acad. Românǎ (1866), Annalile (1867, &c.); Soc. de Stünte (1891); Soc. Politechnicǎ (1881). Jassy, Soc.

Ştünţifica şi Literarǎ (1889).
Greece.—Athens, Φιλολογικὸς σύλλογος Παρνασσός (1865), Παρνασσός

and other publications; Ὴ ἐν Ἀθήναις Ἐπιστημονικὴ Ἑταιρεία (1888),

since 1899 styled Σιναία Ἀκαδήμεια.
Central and South America.—Bogotá, Soc. de Naturalistas

Colombianos, Contribuciones (1860, &c.). Buenos Aires, Soc. Cientifica Argentina (1872), Anales (1876, &c.). Caracas, Soc. de Ciencias, Boletin (1868, &c.). Cordova, Acad. Nacion., Bol. (1874, &c.). Guatemala, Instit. Nac.; Academia (1888); Ateneo (1903), 7 sections. Havana, Acad. de Cien. (1861), Anales (1864, &c.). La Paz (Bolivia), Academia Aymara (1901). Mexico, Soc. Mex. de Hist. Nat. (1868), La Naturaleza (1869, &c.); Academia Mejicana (1875), Memorias (1876-1896); Acad. Mex. de Sciencias (1894), Anales. Rio de Janeiro, Palestra Cient., Archivos (1858, &c.). Santiago, Soc. de Hist.

Nat.
Japan.—Tokyo, Asiatic Soc. of Japan (1872), Trans. (1874, &c.);

Deutsche Ges. f. Natur- u. Völkerskunde Ostasiens (1873), Mitteil.

(1873, &c.).
II. Mathematics
Many of the general scientific societies (see class i.) have

mathematical and other special sections. Among defunct English societies may be mentioned the Mathematical Society, which used to meet in Spitalfields (1717-1845) and possessed a library, and the Cambridge Analytical Society, which published Memoirs (4to, 1813). The London Mathematical Society (1865, incorporated 1894), Proc. (1865, &c.), the Mathematical Assn. (1871), Gazette, and the Edinburgh Mathematical Society (1883), Proc. (1883, &c.), are still flourishing.

United States: American Mathem. Soc. (reorganized 1894), meets at Columbia University, Bull. and Trans. France: Paris, Soc. Mathém. de France (1872), Bull. (1873, &c.). Germany and Austria-Hungary: Berlin, Mathem. Ver. der Univ. (1861), Ber. (1876, &c.); Berliner Mathem. Ges. (1901), Sitzungsber. Budapest, Mathematikai és Phys. Társulat (1891). Cassel, Geometer-Ver. (1878). Dresden, Ver. praktisch. Geometer (1854), Jahresber. (1861, &c.). Essen, Feldmesser-Ver. (1869). Göttingen, Mathemat. Ver. (1868). Hamburg, Mathemat. Ges. (1690), Mittheil. Königsberg, Geometer-Ver. (1872). Leipzig, Deutsche Mathem. Vereinigung (1891), founded at Halle, Jahresb. Strassburg, Geometer-Ver. (1881). Stuttgart, Deutscher Geometer-Ver., Zeitschrift (1872, &c.). Holland: Amsterdam, Genootschap der Mathemat. Wetensch. Kunstoeffinengen (1782-1788), Mengelwerken (1793-1816), and Archief (1856, &c.). Spain: Valladolid, R. Acad, de Matematicas (1803, &c.), now dissolved. Russia: Kazan, Phys. and Math. Soc. (1880). Moscow, Mathemat. Soc. (1867).

Japan: Mathemat. Soc. of Tokyo, Journal (1878, &c.).
III. Astronomy
The first International Astronomical Congress met at Heidelberg

in 1863, and the first international conference for photographing the heavens at Paris in 1887. The Royal Astronomical Society was founded in 1820 under the title of Astronomical Society of London, and was incorporated on the 7th of March 1831. It occupies rooms in Burlington House, and has published Memoirs (1882, &c.) and Monthly Notices (1831, &c.). There are also the British Astronom. Soc. in London, and societies at Bristol (1869), Reports; Leeds (1859), Manchester and Liverpool (1881); Toronto, Roy. Astr. Soc. of Canada (1890), Trans. (1890), Proc. (1902), Journal (1907, &c.); Madison, Astronomical and Astrophysical Soc. of America (1899); San Francisco, Astr. Soc. of the Pacific (1889), Publ.; Paris, Soc. Astr. (1887), Bull.; Berlin, Kgl. Astr. Recheninstitut (1897); Leipzig, Astronomische Ges. (1863), Publ. (1865, &c.) and Vierteljahrsschrift (1866, &c.); Turin, Soc. Astr. Ital. (1906), Revista; Brussels, Soc. Belge d'Astr., de Météorol. et de Physique du Globe (1893), Bull. mens.; Antwerp, Soc. d'Astr. (1905), Gazette; St Petersburg, Russ. Astr. Soc. (1890), Investija (1896, &c.); and Mexico, Soc. Astr. (1902), Boletin

(1902, &c.).
IV. Physics
The first International Electrical Congress was held at Paris in 1881.

The Physical Society of London was founded in 1874 and registered under the Companies Act; it publishes Proceedings (1874, &c.). The London Electrical Society (1836) did useful work in its Transactions (1837-1840, vol. i.) and Proceedings (1841-1843). Sir W. Siemens was one of the originators of the Institution of Electrical Engineers (founded in 1871 and registered in 1883). It owns the Ronalds library of electricity and magnetism and publishes a Journal. In London there are also the Faraday Soc. (1903), Trans. and Proc. and the Optical Soc.

United States: Philadelphia, Amer. Electrochem. Soc., Trans. (1902). New York, Nat. Elec. Light Assn. (1885), Proc. (1885); Amer. Phys. Soc. (1899), Bull. (1899) included since 1903 in the Physical Review; Am. Inst. of Electr. Eng. (1884), Trans. and Proc. France: Cambrai, Soc. Magnétique, Archives (1845). Paris, Soc. Franç. de Phys. (recognized as of public utility on the 15th of January 1881), Bull. Soc. Int. des Électriciens (1883), Bull. Germany: Berlin, Physikalische Ges. (1843), Fortschritte der Physik (1847, &c.); Elektrotechnisch. Ver. (1879), Ztschr. (1880, &c.). Breslau, Physikalischer Ver. Frankfort, Physikalischer Ver. (1824), Jahresber. (1841, &c.), and Wetterkarten daily. Königsberg, Phys.-ökon. Ges. (1790), Schr. (1859, &c.). Italy: Naples, R. Accad. delle Sc. Fis. e Matem., Rendic. (1856, &c.) and Atti (1863). Rome, Soc. degli Spettroscopisti Ital.; Soc. Ital. di Fisica (1897), Il nuovo cimento. Holland: Rotterdam, Bataafsch. Genootschap van Proefondervindelijke wijsbegeerte, Verhandel. (1774, &c.). Russia: St Petersburg, Russ.

Physico-Chemical Soc., Journal (1869, &c.).
V. Chemistry
Pharmaceutical societies are placed in class xiii. (Medicine, &c.).

The Chemical Society of London for the promotion of chemistry and the sciences immediately connected with it was instituted on the 23rd of February 1841; a charter of incorporation was obtained in 1848. It publishes Memoirs (1843, &c.), and Quarterly Journal (1849, &c.). Chemistry and its connexion with the arts, and agricultural and technical matters, form the subjects of the Institute of Chemistry, founded on the 2nd of September 1877 and incorporated in 1885. It publishes Proc. The Society of Chemical Industry (1881) was incorporated in 1907, and publishes a Journal. The Society of Public Analysts publishes the Analyst (1876, &c.). The oldest of the numerous photographic societies is the Royal Photographic Society of Great Britain (1853), which issues a Journal. The Royal College of Chemistry was founded in July 1845, and had a brief career; it published Reports (1849). The Cavendish Society was instituted in 1846 for the publication and translation of works and papers on chemistry. It came to an end in 1872 after having issued 30 vols.

United States: New York, American Chemical Soc. (1876), Proc. (1876), Journ. (1879) and Abstracts (1907). Washington, Chem. Soc. (1884), Bull., now the Journal of the Amer. Chem. Soc. France: Paris, Soc. Chimique (1857), Bull. (1861, &c.). Germany: Berlin, Deutsche Chemische Ges. (1867), Ber. (1868, &c.); Deutsche Bunsen-Ges. (1894), Ztschr. für Elektrochemie; Verein Chem. Reichsanstalt. Frankfort, Chem. Ges. Jena, Chem. Laborat. Leipzig, Ver. Deutscher Chem. (1888), based on the Ver. Analyt. Chemiker., Ztschr. (1900, &c.). Würzburg, Chemische Ges. (1872). Bohemia: Prague, Spolek Chemiku Ceskych or Soc. of Bohemian Chemists, Zpravy or Trans. (1872, &c.). Belgium: Brussels, Soc. Chim. de Belgique, formerly

Assoc Belge des Chimistes (1887), Bull.
VI. Geology, Mineralogy and Palaeontology
The first International Congress of Geology took place at Bologna

in 1878. The Geological Society of London, founded in 1807 and incorporated in 1826, is the largest and most important in Great Britain; it has published Proceedings (1834-1846), Transactions (1811, &c.), and a Quarterly Journal (1845, &c.). The Geologists’ Association was instituted in 1858, and issues Proceedings (1859, &c.). The Mineralogical Society (1876) has united with it the Crystallogical Society; it issues the Mineralogical Magazine (1876, &c.). The Palaeontographical Society was founded in 1847 for the delineation and description of British fossils; it issues Publications (4to, 1847, &c.). The Royal Geological Society of Cornwall (1814) devotes special attention to the mining interests of the county, and publishes Transactions (1818, &c.). It holds its meetings at Penzance. The Geological Society of Edinburgh (1834) issues Transactions (1870, &c.). The Royal Geological Society of Ireland (1832) principally studied the geology of the country. It published a Journal (1837, &c.). There are also the Geological Associations of Leeds (1874) and Liverpool (1880), Trans., and the Societies of Liverpool (1859), Proc., and Manchester (1838), Trans.

South Africa: Johannesburg, Geol. Soc. of S. A. (1895), Trans. (1895, &c.). United States: Louisville, Ky., Ohio Falls Geolog. Soc. San Francisco, California State Geolog. Soc. (1876). New York, Geol. Soc. of Amer. (1888), Bull. Washington, Geol. Soc. of Washington (1893). France: Lille, Soc. Géol. du Nord (1870), Annales (1874, &c.). Havre, Soc. Géol. de Normandie, Bull. (1873, &c.). Paris, Soc. Géol. de France (1830, recognized 1832), awards the Prix Viquesnel (£40) every three years, Bull. (1830, &c.) and Mém. (1833, &c.); Soc. Franç. de Minéralogie (1878, recognized 1886), formerly Soc. Minéral. de France, Bull. (1879, &c.). Saint-Étienne, Soc. d'Ind. Minérale (1855), Bull. (1855, &c.). Germany and Austria-Hungary: Berlin, Deutsche Geol. Ges. (1848), Ztschr. (1849, &c.),

Monatsberichte (1903, &c.); Budapest, Magyarhoni Földtani Tarsulat