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319
SOCIETIES, LEARNED
(1865, &c.); Goethe Ges. (1885), Schriften (1885, &c.); Ges. der

Bibliophilen (1899). Wiesbaden, Ver. f. Nass. Alterth. (1821), Annalen (1830, &c.). Würzburg, Hist. Ver. (1831), Archiv (1833). Switzerland: Basle, Hist. u. Antiq. Ges. (1836). Berne, Allgemeine Geschichtforschende Ges. (1840). Freiberg, Soc. d'Hist. Geneva, Soc. d'Hist. et d'Arch. (1838). Lausanne, Soc. d'Hist.; Soc. Vaudoise d'Hist. et d'Arch. (1902), Revue. St Gall, Hist. Ver. (1859), Mitteil. (1862, &c.). Zürich, Soc. d'Hist.; Antiq. Ges., Denkmäler. Italy: Bologna, Reg. Deputazione di Storia Patria. Catania, Soc. di Storia Patria (1903). Ferrara, Deput. Ferrarese di Storia Patria (1884). Florence, Societa Colombaria (1823); Soc. Dantesca Italiana (1888); R. Deputazione Tosc. di Storia Patria (1862). Genoa, Soc. di Storia Patria (1857). Milan, Soc. Numis. Ital.; Soc. Storica Lombarda. Naples, Soc. Nap. di Storia Patria (1875). Palermo, Soc. Sic. di Storia Patria (1873), Doc. Parma, R. Deputazione di Storia Patria. Rome, Accad. Rom. di Arch.; Soc. Rom. di Storia Patria (1877), Archivio (1877, &c.); Ist. di Corr. Arch.; Brit. and Amer. Arch. Soc.; Soc. Filol. Rom. (1901); Istituto Stor. Ital. (1883), Fonti (1887, &c.); K. Deutsch. Archäolog. Inst., Arch. Ztng. (1843-1885) and Jahrb. Turin, Real Deputaz. di Stor. Patr. (1833). Venice, R. Dep. Ven. di Storia Patria. Verona, Soc. Lett. (1808). Belgium: Antwerp, Acad. d'Archeol. (1842), Bull. (1865, &c.). Bruges, Soc. pour l'Hist. et les Antiq. de la Flandre (1839), Publ. Brussels, Soc. de l'Hist. de Belgique (1858), Publ.; Soc. Roy. de Numism. (1841), Revue; Soc. des Bibliophiles (1865); Soc. d'Archeol. (1887), Annuaire, Annales; Inst. Int. de Bibliogr. (1895), Repertoire. Ghent, Soc. Roy. des Beaux-Arts et de la Litt. (1808), Annales (1844, &c.); Willems Fond (1851); Maatschappij de Vlaamsche Bibliophilen (1839); Soc. d'Hist. et d'Archéol. (founded 1893 as Cercle Hist. et Archéol.), Bull. Liége, Inst. Archéol. (1850), Bull. (1852, &c.). Louvain, Soc. Litt. (1839), Mém. and Publ. Mons, Cercle Archéol. (1856), Annales (1857, &c.). Namur, Soc. Archéol. et Musée de Namur (1845), Annales. Tournai, Soc. Hist. et Litt. (1846), Bull. (1849, &c.). Verviers, Soc. Arch. Ypres, Soc. Hist. (1861). Holland: Leiden, Acad. Lugduno-Batava; Maatschappij der Nederlandsche Letterkunde (1766) Tijdschrift. Luxembourg, Inst. Archéol. (1846, reorganized in 1862), Annales (1849, &c.). Utrecht, Hist. Genootschap (1845). Denmark: Copenhagen, Island. Litt. Selskab; K. Danske Selskab (1745), Magazin; K. Nordisk Oldskrift Selskab, Aarböger (1866, &c.), Fortidsminder (1890, &c.). Reykjavik (Iceland), Fornleifarfelag; Hid islenzka Bókmentafélag (1816), Skirnir. Norway: Christiania, Norske Hist. Forening (1869); Norske Oldskrift Selskab; Foreningen til Norske Fortidsminde maerkers Bevaring (1844). Sweden: Stockholm, K. Witterhets Hist. och Antiq. Akad.; Svenska Akad.; Sv. Fornskriftsällskapet (1843) Proc.; K. Samfundet för utgifvande af handskrifter rörande Skandinaviens hist. (1815-1817), Handl. (1816, &c.). Spain: Barcelona, R. Acad, de Buenas Letras. Madrid, R. Acad. de Cienc. Mor. y Pol.; R. Acad. Esp. Arq.; R. Acad. de la Hist. (1738). Russia: Helsingfors, Finska Litt. Sällskapet (1831), Ztschr. (1841); Finnish Archaeol. Soc. (1870), Tidskrift (1874, &c.); Hist. Soc. (1875), Arkisto (1876, &c.). Kazan, Soc. of Arch. Hist. and Ethnogr. (1877), Izvestija (1878). Mitau, Courland Soc. of Lit. and Art. Moscow, Imp. Russ. Soc. of Hist. and Antiq.; Archaeolog. Soc. (1864). Narva, Archaeolog. Soc. Odessa, Hist. and Antiq. Soc. (1839), Zapiski (1844, &c.). Riga, Lett. Lit. Ges.; Hist. and Antiq. Soc. (1834), Mitteil. (1873, &c.). St Petersburg, Russ. Hist. Soc. (1866), Sbornik (1867, &c.); Imp. Soc. for Study of Ancient Lit. (1877); Imp. Russ. Archeol. Soc. (1846); Russ. Bibliogr. Soc. (1899); Soc. for Orient. Studies, with numerous branches; Neo-Philol. Soc. (1885). Greece: Athens, Soc. Archéol.; Amer. School Class. Studies (1882); École Franç. d'Athènes (1846); British School at Athens (1886); Ἀρχαιολογικὴ Ἑταιρεία (Arch. Soc.) (1837), Ἐφημερίς. Turkey: Constantinople, Soc. for Adv. of Turkish Lit.; Greek Lit. Soc.; Hellenic Philolog. Soc. Bulgaria: Sofia, Bulg. Lit. Soc. (1869), now the Bulgarian Acad. (1910), Period. (1870, &c.). South America: Rio de Janeiro, Inst. hist. e geogr. (1838). Japan:

Yokohama, Asiatic Soc. of Japan, Trans. (1874, &c.).
XVIII. Geography
The Congrès International pour les Progrès des Sciences

Géographiques first met in 1871. The Royal Geographical Society of London, founded in 1830, had joined to it in the following year the African Association (1788), the successor of the Saturday Club; the Palestine Association (1805) became merged with it in 1834. It publishes Journal (1832, &c.) and Proceedings (1857, &c.). The Hakluyt Society (1846) has printed more than 136 vols. of rare voyages and travels. The Alpine Club (1858), whose publications are Peaks, Passes and Glaciers (1859-1862) and Journal (1863, &c.), meets in London. The Royal Scottish Geographical Society (1884) has its centre at Edinburgh, and issues the Scottish Geographical Magazine. Liverpool, Tyneside and Manchester have also Geographical Societies. Australia: Adelaide, R. Geogr. Soc. of Australasia (1885), Proc. Brisbane, R. Geogr. Soc. of Australasia (1885). Melbourne, Roy. Geogr. Soc. of Australasia (1883). Sydney, Geogr. Inst. Canada: Quebec, Geogr. Soc. India: Bombay, Geogr. Soc., Trans. (1836, &c.). Egypt: Cairo, Soc. Khédiviale de Géogr. (1875), Bull.

(1876, &c.).
United States: Baltimore, Geogr. Soc. (1902). Chicago, Geogr.

Soc. (1894). Hamilton, Assoc of Amer. Geogr. (1904). New York, Amer. Geogr. Soc. (1852), Bull. (1852-1857), Journ. later Bull. (1859, &c.), and Proc. (1862-1865). Philadelphia, Geogr. Soc. (1891). San Francisco, Geogr. Soc. (1891), Bull. Washington, Nat. Geogr. Soc. (1852), Magazine (1888). France: Algiers, Soc. Géogr. (1896), Bull. Bordeaux, Soc. de Géogr. Commerciale (1874), Bull. Dijon, Soc. Bourg. de Géogr. et d'Hist. (1881), Mém. (1884, &c.). Lyons, Soc. de Géogr. (1873), Bull. Marseilles, Soc.de Géogr. (1876), Bull. Montpellier, Soc. Languedocienne de Géogr. (1878), Bull. Nancy, Soc. de Géogr. (1878), Bull. Paris, Soc. de Géogr. (1821; 1827), Bull. Toulouse, Soc. de Géogr. (1882), Bull. Germany and Austria-Hungary: D. Alpen-Ver. (1869), Ztschr. u. Jahrb. (1869, &c.). Berlin, Ges. f. Erdkunde (1828), Ztschr. (1853, &c.), and Verhandl. (1873, &c.); Ges. zur Erforschung Aquat. Afrikas (1873), Corr.-Blatt; Afrik. Ges. (1878), Mittheil.; D. Geographentag (1881), Verhandl. Bremen, Geograph. Ges. (1876), Geogr. Blätter. Budapest, Hung.-Geogr. Soc. (1872). Carlsruhe, Badische Geogr. Ges. (1880), Verhandl. Cassel, Ver. f. Erdk. (1882). Darmstadt, Ver. f. Erdk. (1845), Notizblatt (1854, &c.). Dresden, Ver. f. Erdk. (1863), Jahresber. (1865-1901), Mitteil. (1905, &c.). Frankfort, Ver. f. Geogr. u. Statist. (1836), Jahresber. Giessen, Ges. für Erd. u. Völkerkunde (1896). Halle, Ver. f. Erdk. (1873). Hamburg, Geogr. Ges. (1873), Jahresber. Hanover, Geogr. Ges. (1878), Jahresber. Jena, Geogr. Ges. (1880), Mittheil. Leipzig, Ver. f. Erdk. (1861), Jahresber. Lübeck, Geogr. Ges. (1882). Munich, Geogr. Ges. (1869), Jahresber. Vienna, K. k. Geogr. Ges., Mitt. (1857, &c.); Ver. der Geogr. Weimar, Geogr. Inst. Switzerland: Berne, Inst. Geogr.; Geogr. Ges. (1873), Jahresber. (1879, &c.); Schweiz. Alpen-Club. Geneva, Soc. de Géogr., Mém. (1860, &c.). Zürich, Karten-Ver. Italy: Rome, Soc. Geogr. Ital., Bull. (1868, &c.). Turin, Circolo Geogr. Ital. (1868). Belgium: Antwerp, Soc. Belge de Géogr. (1870), Bull.; Soc. Roy. de Géogr. (1876), Bull. Brussels, Soc. Belge de Géogr. (1876). Holland: Amsterdam, K. Nederl. Aardrijkskundig Genoot. (1873), Tijdschrift (1874, &c.); Landkundige Genootschap. Denmark: Copenhagen, Geogr. Selskab. Norway: Christiania, Det norske geogr. Selskab (1889). Spain and Portugal: Lisbon, Soc. de Geogr., Bol. (1875, &c.). Madrid, Soc. Geogr., Bol. (1876, &c.). Russia: Helsingfors, Geogr. Soc. (1888), Tidskrift; Sällskapet för Finlands geografi (1888). Irkutsk, Geogr. Soc., Bull. (1871, &c.). St Petersburg, Imp. Russ. Geogr. Soc., Mém. (1845, &c.), and Bull. (1865, &c.). Tiflis, Geogr. Soc., Mém. (1852, &c.). Rumania: Bucharest, Societatea Geografica Româna (1875), Bull. Egypt: Cairo, Soc. Khédiviale de Géogr., Bull. (1876, &c.). Japan: Tokyo, Geogr. Soc. Central and South America: Buenos Aires, Inst. Geogr. Argent. La Paz, Soc. Geogr. (1889), Bol. Lima, Soc. Geogr. (1888), Bol. Mexico, Soc. de

Geogr. y Estad., Bol. (1833, &c.). Rio de Janeiro, Soc. de Geogr.
Bibliography.—The Catal. of Printed Books in the British

Museum (1841), folio, s.v. “Academies,” contains a list of all the publications of societies at that time in the museum. This has been rearranged and greatly enlarged as Academies (1885-1886), 5 parts folio, with Suppl. (1900-1903). Smithsonian Instn. International Exchange List (1908); B. Quaritch, List of Learned Societies (Odd Vols.) (1886). S. H. Scudder, Cat. of Scientific Serials (1633-1876); Camb. (U.S.) (1879), 8vo. For general indexes see J. D. Reuss, Repertorium (1801-1821), 16 vols., Roy. Soc. Cat. of Sc. Papers (1867-1902); Societatum Litterae, Verzeichniss (1887-1900, 14 vols.). For list of indexes to transactions, &c., see A. Stein, Manuel de Bibliographie générale (1897), p. 642, &c. Minerva (Strassb. Trübner), from 1891 on, is most useful for all the chief existing societies in the world. British societies are now well represented in the Year Book of the Scientific and Learned Societies of Great Brit. and Ireland (1884, &c.). See also Hume's Learned Societies and Printing Clubs of the U.K. (1853, 8vo); E. Mailly, Inst. Sc. de la Grande-Bret. (1861-1867, 6 pts.); H. G. Bohn, App. to Bibliographer's Manual (1864), 8vo; Engl. Catal. of Books (1864-1909); C. S. Terry, Cat. of Publications of Scottish Historical Societies and Clubs, 1909; “Sc. Societies and Field Clubs,” in Nature, v., viii. For American Societies see R. R. Bowker, Publns. of Societies (New York, 1899); Handbk. of Learned Societies, Carnegie Inst. of Washington (1908); A. P. C. Griffin, Bibl. of Amer. Historical Societies (1905); A. Growoll, Am. Book Clubs (New York, 1897). For France, see U. Robert, Bibl. des. Soc. sav. de la France, pt. i. (1878); F. Bouillier, L'Institut et les acad. de province (1879, 8vo); Lasteyrie, Lefèvre-Pontalis et A. Vidier, Bibliogr. des travaux hist. et arch. publ. par les soc. sav. de la France (1888-1904, 4 vols. 4to). J. Deniker, Bibliogr. des travaux scientifiques publ. par les soc. savantes de la France (1895, &c.); H. Delauny, Les Soc. savantes de la France (1902); E. Lefèvre-Pontalis, Bibl. des soc. savantes de la France (1887); Annuaire des Soc. savantes de la France et de l'étranger (1846); A. d'Hericourt, Annuaire (1863-1866); continued in Revue de soc. savantes. For Germany and Austria-Hungary, see H. A. Stöhr, Allg. Deutsches Vereinshandbuch (1873, &c., 8vo); J. Müller, Die wiss. Vereine u. Ges. Deutschlands im 19ten Jahrh. (1883-l888); J. Winckler, Die period. Presse Österreichs (1875, 8vo); and P. A. F. Walther for German historical societies (1845). See also “Les Congrès scientifiques,” by Comte de Marsy, in Compte rendu du Congrès Bibliogr. (1879). For Belgium, see Introd. à la Bibl. de la Belgique (1875). For Italy, see Statistica della stampa periodica, 1880-1895; Elenco bibl. delle accademie ec. corrisp. con. la R. Accad. dei Lincei Roma, 1908. For Russia, consult C. Woldemar, Gesch. d. russ. Gelehrten- und Schulanstalten (St Petersburg, 1865, 8vo), and Kawall, Die neuen russ. Naturforschergesellschaften (Riga,

1872-1874). (H. R. T.)