Page:EB1911 - Volume 25.djvu/524

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to the Union. The inauguration of General Wade Hampton (1818-1902) as governor, and the final withdrawal of United States troops in 1877, marked the downfall of negro rule.

The political history of the state since 1877 presents some interesting features. Practically the entire white population is Democratic, partly for historical reasons and partly because of a feeling that union is necessary to maintain white supremacy. The old warfare between the Up Country and the Low Country has been renewed in a modified form in the conflict between Reformers and Conservatives. The triumph of the Reformers culminated in the founding of Clemson Agricultural College (1889), the establishment of the state dispensary system for the sale of intoxicating liquors (1893), the election of Benjamin R. Tillman (b. 1847) to the United States Senate (1894) over M. C. Butler (1836-1909), and the work of the constitutional convention of 1895.

Governors of South Carolina
Proprietary Period (1670-1719)
William Sayle  1670-1671
Joseph West (chosen by the council)  1671-1672
Sir John Yeamans  1672-1674
Joseph West  1674-1682
Joseph Morton  1682-1684
Richard Kyrle  1684
Robert Quarry (chosen by the council)  1684-1685
Joseph West  1685
Joseph Morton  1685-1686
James Colleton  1686-1690
Seth Sothell  1690-1692
Philip Ludwell  1692-1693
Thomas Smith  1693-1694
Joseph Blake (chosen by the council)  1694
John Archdale  1694-1696
Joseph Blake  1696-1700
James Moore (chosen by the council)  1700-1702
Sir Nathaniel Johnson  1702-1710
Edward Tynte  1710
Robert Gibbes (chosen by the council)  1710-1711
Charles Craven  1711-1716
Robert Daniel (deputy-governor)  1716-1717
Robert Johnson  1717-1719
Royal Period (1719-1776)
James Moore (elected by the people)  1719-1721
Sir Francis Nicholson 1721-1729
Arthur Middleton (president of the council and
acting-governor)  1724-1729
Robert Johnson  1729-1735
Thomas Broughton (lieutenant-governor)  1735-1737
William Bull (president of the council,
lieutenant-governor)  1737-1743
James Glen  1743-1756
William Henry Lyttleton  1756-1760
William Bull, the 2nd (lieutenant-governor)  1760-1761
Thomas Boone  1761-1764
William Bull, the 2nd (lieutenant-governor)  1764-1766
Lord Charles Greville Montague  1766-1768
William Bull, the 2nd (lieutenant-governor)  1768
Lord Charles Greville Montague  1768-1769
William Bull, the 2nd (lieutenant-governor)  1769-1771
Lord Charles Greville Montague  1771-1773
William Bull, the 2nd (lieutenant-governor)  1773-1775
Lord William Campbell  1775
Henry Laurens (president of the council of safety)
Statehood Period (1776-)
John Rutledge (president)  1776-1778
Rawlins Lowndes (president)  1778-1779
John Rutledge  1779-1782
John Matthewes  1782-1783
Benjamin Guerard  1783-1785
William Moultrie  1785-1787
Thomas Pinckney  1787-1789
Charles Pinckney Democrat-Republican  1789-1792
William Moultrie  1792-1794
Arnoldus Vanderhorst  1794-1796
Charles Pinckney  1796-1798
Edward Rutledge  1798-1800
John Drayton  1800-1802
James B. Richardson  1802-1804
Paul Hamilton  1804-1806
Charles Pinckney  1806-1808
John Drayton  1808-1810
Henry Middleton  1810-1812
Joseph Alston  1812-1814
David R. Williams  1814-1816
Andrew Pickens  1816-1818
John Geddes  1818-1820
Thomas Bennett  1820-1822
John L. Wilson  1822-1824
Richard I. Manning  1824-1826
John Taylor  1826-1828
Stephen D. Miller Democrat  1828-1830
James Hamilton, jun.  1830-1832
Robert Y. Hayne  1832-1834
George McDuffie  1834-1836
Pierce M. Butler  1836-1838
Patrick Noble  1838-1840
B. K. Henegan (acting)  1840
John P. Richardson  1840-1842
James H. Hammond  1842-1844
William Aiken  1844-1846
David Johnson  1846-1848
Whitemarsh B. Seabrook  1848-1850
John H. Means  1850-1852
John L. Manning  1852-1854
James H. Adams  1854-1856
Robert F. W. Allston  1856-1858
William H. Gist  1858-1860
Francis W. Pickens  1860-1862
Milledge L. Bonham  1862-1864
Andrew G. McGrath  1864-1865
Benjamin F. Perry (provisional)  1865
James L. Orr Conservative  1865-1868
Gen. Edward R. S. Canby (military governor)  1868-
Robert K. Scott Republican  1868-1872
Franklin J. Moses, jun.  1872-1874
Daniel H. Chamberlain  1874-1876
Wade Hampton Democrat  1876-1879
William D. Simpson (acting)  1879-1880
Thomas D. Jeter (acting)  1880
Johnson Hagood  1880-1882
Hugh S. Thompson  1882-1886
John C. Sheppard (acting)  1886
John P. Richardson  1886-1890
Benjamin R. Tillman  1890-1894
John G. Evans  1894-1897
William H. Ellerbe  1897-1899
Miles B. McSweeney  1899-1903
Duncan C. Heyward  1903-1907
Martin F. Ansel  1907-1911
Coleman L. Blease  1911-
Bibliography—For general description see Michael Tuomey,

Report on the Geology of South Carolina (Columbia, 1848); the Handbook of South Carolina; Resources, Institutions, and Industries of the State, published by the State Department of Agriculture, Commerce and Immigration (Columbia, 1907; 2nd ed., 1908); the Annual Reports (1904 seq.) of the same department and its other publications; and W. G. Simms, Geography of South Carolina (Charleston, 1843). For administration see D. D. Wallace, The Civil Government of South Carolina (Dallas, 1906); E. L. Whitney, Government of the Colony of South Carolina, in Johns Hopkins University Studies, vol. xiii. (Baltimore, 1895); B. J. Ramage, Local Government and Free Schools in South Carolina, in Johns Hopkins University Studies, vol. i. No. 12 (Baltimore, 1883); Colyer Meriwether, History of Higher Education in South Carolina (Washington, 1889), in Circulars of Information of the United States Bureau of Education, No. 3. There is no general history of South Carolina. The standard work for the colonial period is Edward McCrady's The History of South Carolina under the Proprietary Government, 1670-1719 (New York, 1897) and his History of South Carolina under the Royal Government, 1719-1776 (ibid. 1899), which are accurate and interesting, but neglect the manuscript sources at Columbia. Older histories are Alexander Hewatt, Historical Account of the Rise and Progress of the Colonies of South Carolina and Georgia (London, 1779), freely used by later writers; David Ramsay, History of South Carolina (2 vols., Charleston, 1809), little more than a reprint, without acknowledgments, of Hewatt; and William J. Rivers, Sketch of the History of South Carolina to the Close of the Proprietary Government, 1719 (Charleston, 1856), which was utilized by McCrady in his first volume and was the first history of the colony based on the documents in the Public Records Office. See also E. L. Whitney, “Bibliography of the Colonial History of South Carolina,” in Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the Year 1894 (Washington, 1895). More distinctly legal and political in character are three doctors' monographs: Edson L. Whitney, Government of the Colony of South Carolina (Baltimore, 1895), based too exclusively on the statutes; D. D. Wallace, Constitutional History of South Carolina from 1725 to 1775 (Abbeville, S. C., 1899; new ed., 1908), a very brief summary; and W. Roy Smith, South Carolina as a Royal Province, 1719-1776 (New York, 1903), based on the manuscript sources at Columbia. The standard

work for the War of Independence is Edward McCrady, The History