1901-1902). Older books on the subject are David Ramsay, History of the Revolution of South Carolina from a British Colony to an Independent State (2 vols., Trenton, 1785); William Moultrie, Memoirs of the American Revolution, so for as it related to the States of North and South Carolina and Georgia (2 vols., New York, 1802); John Drayton, Memoirs of the American Revolution relating to the State of South Carolina (2 vols., Charleston, 1821); and R. W. Gibbes, Documentary History of the American Revolution (3 vols., Columbia, 1853; New York, 1857). Very little has been written on the period since 1783. David F. Houston, Critical Study of Nullification in South Carolina (New York, 1896), is a concise, scholarly work. Hermann von Holst's John C. Calhoun (Boston, 1892), is written from the extreme nationalistic and anti-slavery point of view. For the Civil War and Reconstruction, see James Ford Rhodes, History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850 (5 vols., New York, 1893-1904); James S. Pike, The Prostrate State; or South Carolina under Negro Government (New York, 1874); Carl Schurz, Report on the States of South Carolina, Georgia, &c. (Washington, 1865, being 39th Congress, 1st session, Sen. Ex. Doc. 2); Hilary A. Herbert and others, Why the Solid South? (Baltimore, 1890); and John P. Hollis, The Early Period of Reconstruction in South Carolina (Baltimore, 1905), containing an excellent discussion of the period from 1865 to 1868. For the religious history see Frederick Dalcho, An Historical Account of the Protestant Episcopal Church in South Carolina from the first Settlement of the Province to the War of the Revolution (Charleston, 1820); G. D. Bernheim, History of the German Settlements and of the Lutheran Church in North and South Carolina (Philadelphia, 1872). An excellent monograph on the controversy between the Up Country and the Low Country is William A. Schaper, Sectionalism and Representation in South Carolina (Washington, 1901). Among the chief printed sources are the North Carolina Colonial Records (10 vols., Raleigh, 1886-1890), useful for the early period; B. R. Carroll, Historical Collections of South Carolina (2 vols., New York, 1836); and the South Carolina Historical Society Collections (5 vols., Charleston, 1857, 1858, 1859,1887 and 1897—vol. v. contains the Shaftesbury Papers).
SOUTHCOTT, JOANNA (1750-1814), English religious fanatic, was born at Gittisham in Devonshire. Her father was a farmer and she herself was for a considerable time a domestic servant. She was originally a Methodist, but about 1792, becoming persuaded that she possessed supernatural gifts, she wrote and dictated prophecies in rhyme, and then announced herself as the woman spoken of in Rev. xii. Coming to London at the request of William Sharp (1749-1824), the engraver, she began to “seal” the 144,000 elect at a charge varying from twelve shillings to a guinea. When over sixty she affirmed that she would be delivered of Shiloh on the 10th of October 1814, but Shiloh failed to appear, and it was given out that she was in a trance. She died of brain disease on the 29th of the same month. Her followers are said to have numbered over 100,000, and only became extinct at the end of the 19th century.
Among her sixty publications, all equally incoherent in thought and grammar, may be mentioned: Strange Effects of Faith (1801-1802), Free Exposition of the Bible (1804), The Book of Wonders (1813-1814), and Prophecies announcing the Birth of the Prince of Peace (1814). A lady named Essam left large sums of money for printing and publishing the Sacred Writings of Joanna Southcott. The will was disputed by a niece on the ground that the writings were blasphemous, but the court of chancery sustained it.
Southcott (1807); R. Reece, Correct Statement of the Circumstancesattending the Death of Joanna Southcott (1815).
SOUTH DAKOTA, one of the North Central states of the American Union, lying between 42° 28' and 45° 57' N. Lat. and 96° 26' and 104° 3' W. long. It is bounded N. by North Dakota; E. by Minnesota and Iowa; S. by Nebraska; and W. by Wyoming and Montana. Lake Traverse and the Big Stone Lake separate the state in part from Minnesota; the Big Sioux River forms most of the boundary between South Dakota and Iowa; and the Missouri river separates the state in part from Nebraska. South Dakota has an extreme length, east and west, of 380 m., an extreme width, north and south, of 245 m., and a total area of 77,615 sq. m., of which 747 sq. m. are water-surface.
the south-west, the state is a wide rolling plain, with its eastern portion a part of the Prairie Plains region, and its western portion a part of the Great Plains. The surface of this plain, however, ranges from level river valleys in the east to irregular plateaus broken by buttes and scored by cañons in the west. The lowest part of the state is the surface of Big Stone Lake, about 970 ft. above the sea; the highest point is Harney Peak in the Black Hills, which rises to a height of 7216 ft. The state as a whole has a mean elevation of 2200 ft., with 270 sq. m. below 1000 ft.; 42,300 sq. m. between 1000 and 2000 ft.; 23,000 sq. m. between 2000 and 3000 ft.; 10,700 sq. m. between 3000 and 5000 ft.; and 1380 sq. m. between 5000 and 8000 ft.
In the extreme north-east there is a range of low hills known as the Coteau des Prairies, which crosses the state in a S.S.E. direction through Marshall, Roberts, Grant and Deuel counties and maintains an almost constant altitude of from 1950 to 2050 ft. It forms the divide between the headwaters of the Minnesota river on the east and of the James river on the west. To the south and west of the Coteau des Prairies lie vast stretches of plains, including the valleys of the Big Sioux and James rivers. This region presents no striking topographic features except the numerous small lakes which occupy the hollows created by the continental ice-sheet. The greater part of the James River Valley lies in the bed of the extinct Lake Dakota, which was once a very narrow body of water extending northward from about the latitude of the present town of Mitchell for a short distance into what is now North Dakota. West of the James River Valley lies an elevated table-land, known as the Coteau du Missouri, which marks the water parting between the James and the Missouri rivers, and has a general elevation of about 1800 ft. Along the west boundary of the state the general elevation of the Great Plains is about 3500 ft. As the part east of the river was once covered by the ice-sheet, its hills have been lowered and its valleys filled through the attrition of glaciers until the surface has a gently undulating appearance. West of the Missouri river the sheet of glacial drift is absent, and the lands everywhere show evidence of extensive stream erosion. The surface is broken by many clusters of small hills, such as the Fox Ridge in the central part of the state and the Cave Hills in the north-west, and in the vicinity of streams it is much cut up by deep ravines. In the south-west the results of this erosion are seen in an accentuated form in the region between the White river and the South Fork of the Cheyenne river, known as the Bad Lands or terres mauvaises. This area extends from the 101st meridian up the White river for about 120 m. and varies in width from 30 to 50 m. Here the land surface has been carved into forms in infinite variety. Many slender columns of clay, supporting masses of sandstone which have protected them from erosion, rise from the surface like gigantic toadstools. The sides of these ridges and pinnacles are bare of vegetation and display a variety of colours in buff, cream, pale green, grey and flesh. The most prominent features of the landscape rise from 150 to 300 ft. above the valleys; the latter and the flat tops of the mesas are sometimes covered with a scanty soil and a sparse growth of grass. These Bad Lands were once a fairly level plain, but intricate stream erosion produced the labyrinth of ravines and ridges for which the region is noted. The Bad Lands of the White river are also noted for their wealth of animal fossils, which have been found in such quantities as to cause geologists to believe that the vertebrates perished there in droves during a severe storm or flood. Other Bad Lands, on a less impressive scale, are found along the Grand and the Moreau or Owl rivers. North-west of the Bad Lands of the White river lie the Black Hills (q.v.), an irregular dome-shaped uplift, about 125 m. long and 60 m. wide, lying partly in Wyoming, and with the main axis trending almost north-west and south-east. The uplift is completely enclosed by a rim of hog-back ridges from 300 to 600 ft. above the plain, and between this rim and the hills proper lies the Red Valley, a tract about 3 m. wide and bordered on the inner side by the main mass of limestone and crystalline rocks which have in general a height of 4000 or 5000 ft. above the sea—some ridges and peaks rise higher still. Upon this limestone plateau there is a central area of high ridges, among them the rough crags of Harney, Custer and Dodge peaks. Between the ridges of the central area lie wide valleys and “parks.” The streams flowing from the central area have cut deep gorges and cañons, and among the ridges the granitic rocks have assumed many strange forms. Though rising from a semi-arid plateau, these mountains have sufficient rainfall to support an abundant plant growth, and have derived their name from the fact that their slopes are dark with heavy forests. Cathedral Park in the southern portion, Spearfish Cañon in the north, and the extensive fossil forest at the foot of Mattie's Peak are noteworthy; while the Crystal Cave, near Piedmont, and the WindCave, near Hot Springs, are almost unrivalled.
the drainage system of the Missouri river. This stream enters the state near the centre of the northern boundary, pursues a winding south-easterly course, and from its intersection with the 43rd parallel of N. lat. to its junction with the Big Sioux river separates South Dakota from Nebraska. The Big Sioux river rises in the Coteau des Prairies in the north-east and flows almost directlysouth for nearly 200 m., in the lower part of its course forming