Page:EB1911 - Volume 25.djvu/533

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culminated in their marriage. Ellen Fitzarlhur (1820) may be taken as typical, in its prosy simplicity, of the rest of its author's work. Mrs Southey's poems were published in a collected edition in 1867. Among her prose writings may be mentioned Chapters on Churchyards (1829), her best work; Tales of the Moors (1828) ; and Selwyn in Search of a Daughter (1835). It was soon after her marriage that her husband's mental state became hopeless, and from this time till his death in 1843, and indeed till her own, her life was one of much suffering. She was not on good terms with her stepchildren, and her share in Southey's life is hardly noticed in Charles Cuthbert Southey's Life and Correspondence of his father. But with Edith Southey (Mrs Warter) she was always in friendly relations, and she supplied the valuable additions to Southey's correspondence published by J. W. Warter. She is best remembered by her correspon- dence with Southey, which, neglected in the official biography, was edited by Professor Dowden in 1S81. Mrs Southey died at Buckland Cottage, Lymington, on the 20th of July 1854, two years after the queen had granted her an annual pension of £200.

Besides the works already mentioned, Mrs Southey wrote The Widow's Tale, and other Poems (1822); Solitary Hours (prose and verse, 1826); Tales of the Factories (1833); The Birthday (1836); and Robin Hood, written in conjunction with Southey, at whose death this metrical production was incomplete.

SOUTHGATE, an urban district in the Enfield parliamentary division of Middlesex, England, 9 m. N. of St Paul's Cathedral, London, on the Great Northern railway. Pop. (1901), 14,993. It is pleasantly situated in a wooded district, and forms an outer residential suburb of the metropolis. Christ Church, in Early English style, is the work of Sir Gilbert Scott, and contains stained glass windows from the designs of Sir E. Burne- Jones and D. G. Rossetti. Close to New Southgate station is Colney Hatch Lunatic Asylum for the county of London, opened in 1851 and subsequently much enlarged.

SOUTH GEORGIA, an uninhabited British island in the South Atlantic Ocean, about 900 m. S. by E. of the Falklands, in 54°-55° S., 36°-38° W.; area 1600 sq. m. It is mountainous, with snowy peaks 6000 to 8000 ft. high, their slopes furrowed with deep gorges filled with glaciers. Its geological constitution—gneiss and argillaceous schists, with no trace of fossils—shows that the island is, like the Falklands, a surviving fragment of some greater land-mass now vanished, most probably indicating a former extension of the Andean system. At Royal Bay, on the south-east side, was stationed the German expedition sent out to observe the transit of Venus in 1882. The island would be well suited for cattle or sheep farming but for its damp, foggy climate. The flora is surprisingly rich, and the German naturalists were able to collect thirteen flowering plants, mostly common also to the Falklands, but one allied to a form found in distant New Zealand. South Georgia is politically attached to the Falklands.

SOUTH HADLEY, a township of Hampshire county, Massachusetts, U.S.A., on the Connecticut river, about 12 m. N. of Springfield. Pop. (1900), 4526, of whom 1119 were foreign-born; (1910 census), 4894. Area, 18-5 sq. m. There are no steam railways, but an electric line connects South Hadley and South Hadley Falls with the New York, New Haven & Hartford and the Boston & Maine railways at Holyoke. The village of South Hadley, or the Center, lies at the south base of Mount Holyoke, about 4 m. from Holyoke and about 3 m. from South Hadley Falls; it is the seat of Mount Holyoke College. South Hadley Falls are connected with Holyoke by a bridge across the Connecticut river. The falls of the river afford water-power for paper mills, cotton and woollen mills, and saw mills. South Hadley was originally a part of the township of Hadley, but in 1753 the district of South Hadley was established, and in 1775 incorporated as a separate township.

SOUTH HOLLAND, a province of Holland, bounded W. by the North Sea, N. by North Holland, E. by Utrecht and Gclderland, S.E. by North Brabant, and S. by Zeeland. It has an area of 1166 sq. m., and a population (1905) of 1,287,363. Its south-eastern and southern boundaries are defined by the estuaries called the New Merwede, the Hollandsch Diep, the Volkerak, the Krammer, and Grevelingen, and the province includes the delta islands of Goeree (Goedereede) and Overflakkee, Voorne and Putten, Rozenburg, Yselmonde, Hoeksche Waard, and Dordrecht. The natural division into dunes, geest grounds, and clay and low fen holds for South as well as for North Holland. Noordwyk-on-Sea, Katwyk-on-sea, Scheveningen, and Ter Heide are watering-places and fishing villages. The Hook (Hoek) of Holland harbour, built at the mouth of the New Waterway (1866-1872) from Rotterdam, is the chief approach to Central Europe from Harwich on the east coast of England. At the foot of the dunes are the old towns and villages of Sassenheim, close to which are slight remains of the ancient castle of Teilingen (12th century), in which the countess Jacoba of Bavaria died in 1433. Among other places of interest are Rynsburg, the site of a convent for nobles founded in 1133 and destroyed in the time of Spanish rule; Voorschoten; Wassenaar, all of which were formerly minor lordships; Loosduinen, probably the Lugdunum of the Romans, and the seat of a Cistercian abbey destroyed in 1579; Naaldwyk, an ancient lordship; and 's Gravenza.nde, which possessed a palace of the counts of Holland in the 12th century, when it was a harbour on the Maas. The Hague, situated in the middle of this line of ancient villages, is the capital of the province. The market-gardening of the region called the Westland, between the Hague and the Hook of Holland, is remarkable, and large quantities of vegetables are exported to England. On the clay and low fen cattle-rearing and the making of the Gouda cheeses are the principal occupations. Flourishing centres of industry are found along the numerous river arms, including Maasluis, Vlaardingen, Schiedam, Rotterdam, Gorinchem, and Dordrecht. Here also are some of the oldest settlements, such as Vianen on the Lek, Leerdam on the Linge, and Woudrichem or Woerkum at the junction of the Maas and Merwede. Woudrichem guards the entrance to the Merwede in conjunction with Fort Loevestein on the opposite shore. Vianen is supposed to be the Fanum Dianae of Ptolemy, and was the seat of an independent lordship which passed to the family of Brederode in 1418, and later to the princes of Lippe-Detmold, from whom it was bought by the states in 1725. There is a fine tomb of Reinoud van Brederode (d. 1556) and his wife in the Reformed Church. The lordship of Leerdam arose out of a division of the lordship of van Arkel and descended to the house of Egmond. It was raised to a countship in 1492, and passed by marriage to the family of Orange-Nassau. The Reformed Church contains the tomb of John, last lord of van Arkel.

SOUTHINGTON, a township of Hartford county, Connecticut, U.S.A., about 15 m. S.W. of the city of Hartford' Within the township is the borough of Southington, served by the New York, New Haven & Hartford railroad. Pop. of the township (1910), 6516, which included that of the borough, 3714. The area of the township is 35 sq. m. The principal industry is the manufacture of hardware goods. Between 1809 and 1874 as many as 236 patents were granted to residents. Southington was originally a part of the township of Farmington. It was settled about 1697; in 1724 it became an independent parisi under the name of Panthorn. The township was incorporated in 1779, the borough in 1889.

See H. R. Timlow's Ecclesiastical and Other Sketches of Southington (Hartford, 1875).

SOUTH MELBOURNE, a city of Bourke county, Victoria, Australia, separated from Melbourne in 1855, proclaimed a city in 1883, and formerly known as Emerald Hill. Pop. (1901), 40,637. It returns three members [to parliament and contains the residence of the governor of the colony. The wharves on the river Yarra and its numerous manufactures contribute to the wealth and importance of the city.

SOUTH MOLTON, a market town and municipal borough in the South Molton parliamentary division of Devonshire, England, on the river Mole, 197 m. W. by S. of London, by the Great Western railway. Pop. (1901), 2848. Besides the parish church