of St Mary Magdalene, a fine and massive Perpendicular building with an ancient pulpit of carved stone, there are a guildhall and market house. Linen goods are manufactured; fairs are held twice yearly, and numerous flour mills are worked by the river. The town is governed by a mayor, 4 aldermen, and 12 councillors. Area, 5910 acres.
South Molton (Sud Moutona) was probably the site of a very early settlement, the remains of a British camp being visible 2 m. south of the town, but its authentic history begins with the Domesday survey, which relates that the manor had been royal demesne of Edward the Confessor and now paid Â£10 a year to the Conqueror. In the 13th century it was held by Nicholas Fitz Martin of the earl of Gloucester for the service of finding a bow with three arrows to attend the earl when he should hunt in Gower. In 1246 Nicholas obtained a grant of a Saturday market and a fair at the feast of the Assumption (both maintained up to the present day), and in 1275 South Molton appears for the first time as a mesne borough under his overlordship. The borough subsequently passed to the Audleys, the Hollands, and in 1487 was granted for life to Margaret, duchess of Richmond, who in 1490 obtained a grant of a fair (which is still held) at the nativity of St John the Baptist. It returned two members to parliament in 1302, but no charter of incorporation was issued until that of Elizabeth in 1590, instituting a common council of a mayor and eighteen burgesses, three of whom were to be elected capital burgesses, with a recorder, steward of the borough court, two sergeants-at-mace, and a court of record every three weeks on Monday. A fresh charter was issued by Charles II. in 1684. This remained in force until the Municipal Corporations Act of 1833. The town formerly had a considerable manufacture of serges and shalloons, or light woollen linings, so called from Chalons-sur-Marne, France.
SOUTH NORWALK, a city of Fairfield county, Connecticut, U.S.A., at the mouth of the Norwalk river, on Long Island Sound, in the township of Norwalk, and 42 m. by rail N.E. of New York. Pop. (1900) 6591, including 1528 foreign-born (many Hungarians) and 83 negroes; (1910) 8968. It is served by the main line and the Danbury division (of which it is a terminus) of the New York, New Haven & Hartford railway, by inter-urban electric lines, and by steamboats to New York. The business and manufacturing section is close to the river and only a few feet above it; behind this, along a ridge, is the residential district; along the Sound are summer cottages and pleasure resorts. West Avenue is a finely shaded drive. The city has a public library and a soldiers' monument. South Norwalk is chiefly a manufacturing and commercial city. It has a good harbour (in which there are three lighthouses), considerable coastwise trade, and important oyster fisheries. South Norwalk, long an unincorporated village called Old Well, was chartered as a city under its present name in 1870, and its charter was revised and amended in 1882, 1897 and 1909.
SOUTHOLD, a township of Suffolk county, New York, occupy- ing the peninsula at the N.E. of Long Island, and including the islands E.N.E. of this peninsula, Plum Island, on which defences protect the eastern entrance to Long Island Sound, Little Gull Island, on which there is a lighthouse, Great Gull Island, and Fisher's Island. Pop. (1900), 8301; (1910, U.S. census), 10,577. Excluding the islands to the east, the township is about 25 m. long and its average width is 2 m.; the Sound shore is broken only by Mattituck and Goldsmith's inlets, but the southern shore is broken with bays and necks of land. The surface is hilly, with occasional glacial boulders. The Long Island railway serves the principal villages of the township, Mattituck, Cutchogue, Peconic, Southold and Green- port (pop. in 1910, 3089), and from Greenport steamers run to Shelter Island, Sag Harbor, New London and New York. Beyond Greenport are the villages of East Marion and Orient. Greenport has some shipping and some oyster fisheries, as- paragus is grown at Mattituck, and Peconic Bay is noted for its scallops. Southold is a summer resort, and it is historically interesting as one of the first English settlements on Long Island. The first permanent settlement here was made in 1640; land was bought from the Indians in August (a lease from the proprietor William Alexander, Lord Stirling, had been secured in 1639), and on the 2 1 st of October 1640 a Presbyterian church was organized under John Youngs, who came from New Haven and had been connected with a St Margaret's church in Suffolk, England, probably at Reydon, near South wold; and it is possible that the settlement was named from Southwold, though as it was commonly called " the South Hold " by early writers and a settlement on Wading River was called West Hold, the name was probably descriptive. A meeting-house was built in 1642, and biblical laws were enforced. Southold was originally one of the six towns under the New Haven jurisdiction, but in 1662 was placed under Connecticut; in 1664 it objected strongly to the transfer of Long Island to the duke of York; in 1670 refused to pay taxes imposed by Governor Francis Lovelace of New York; in 1672 petitioned the king to be under Connecticut or to be a free corporation; in 1673, when the Dutch got control of New York, withstood the Dutch commissioners, with the help of Connecti- â– cut; and, in 1674, after English supremacy was again estab- lished in New York, still hoped to be governed from Connecticut. The township was chartered by Governor Edmund Andros in 1676. Greenport was not settled until the first quarter of the 19th century, and was incorporated as a village in 1838.
See Epher Whitaker, History of Southold, L.I.: Its First Century (Southold, 1881); Southold Town Records (2 vols., Southold, 1882- 1884), and an address by C. B. Moore in Celebration of the 250th Anniversary of the Formation of the Town and the Church of Southold, L.I. (Southold, 1890).
SOUTH OMAHA, a city of Douglas county, Nebraska, U.S.A., on the high western bluffs of the Missouri, immediately adjoining Omaha on the south. Pop. (1900), 26,001, of whom 5607 were foreign-born; (1910, census) 26,259. It is served by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Chicago Great Western, the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul, the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, the Illinois Central, the Missouri Pacific, the Union Pacific, the Chicago & North Western, and the short Omaha Bridge Terminal railways. The principal public buildings are the Federal building (housing the post office and the bureau of animal industry), the public library and the live-stock exchange. Next to Chicago and Kansas City it is the greatest slaughtering and meat-packing centre in the United States. In 1905 it produced 43.5% ($67,415,177) of the total value of the factory product of the state, and of this output 97.2% represented the slaughtering and packing industry. South Omaha was chartered as a city of the second class in 1887, and in 1901 became a city of the first class. The present city dates from 1884, when the Union stockyards were established here.
SOUTH ORANGE, a township and a village of Essex county, New Jersey, U.S.A., in the N.E. of the state, about 15 m. W. of New York City. Pop. of the village (1900), 4608, of whom 1140 were foreign-born; (1905) 4932; (1910) 6014. Pop. of the township, excluding the village (1900) 1630; (1905) 1946; (1910) 2979. The village is served by the Morris & Essex division of the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western railroad, and is connected with Orange and with Newark by electric lines. It is primarily a residential suburb of New York and Newark. On tue Orange mountain is Essex county park, a wild tract with forest roads. The western part of the township is locally known as Maplewood, the eastern as Hilton. South Orange has a public library and a town hall, and is the seat of Seton Hall College (Roman Catholic), named in honour of Mother Elizabeth Seton, founded at Madison, N.J., in 1856, and removed to South Orange in i860. Among the landmarks of South Orange are an old stone house of unknown date, but mentioned in legal documents describing the surrounding property as early as 1680; the Baldwin House (c. 1717); and the Timothy Ball House (1743). Settlements were made within the present limits of the township in the latter part of the 17 th century by some of the founders of Newark. The township was created in 1861 from parts of the town of Orange and the township of Clinton. The citizens secured in 1869 a village charter providing a village president and a board of trustees; in 1904 the village was entirely