Page:EB1911 - Volume 25.djvu/938

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entitled "A General View of the Progress of Metaphysical, Ethical, and Political Philosophy since the Revival of Letters." In 1822 he was struck with paralysis, but recovered a fair degree of health, sufficient to enable him to resume his studies. In 1827 he published the third volume of the Elements, and in 1828, a few weeks before his death, The Philosophy of the Active and Moral Powers. He died in Edinburgh on the 11th of June 1828. A monument to his memory was erected on Calton Hill.

Stewart's philosophical views are mainly the reproduction of his master Reid (for his ethical views see Ethics. He upheld Reid's psychological method and expounded the "common-sense" doctrine, which was attacked by the two Mills. Unconsciously, however, he fell away from the pure Scottish tradition and made concessions both to moderate empiricism and to the French ideologists (Laromiguière, Cabanis and Destutt de Tracy). It is important to notice the energy of his declaration against the argument of ontology, and also against Condillac's sensationalism. Kant, he confessed, he could not understand. Perhaps his most valuable and original work is his theory of taste in the Philosophical Essays. But his reputation rests rather on his inspiring eloquence and the beauty of his style than on original work.

Stewart's works were edited in 11 vols. (1854–1858) by Sir William Hamilton and completed with a memoir by John Veitch. Matthew Stewart (his eldest son) wrote a life in Annual Biography and Obituary (1829), republished privately in 1838. For his philosophy see McCosh, Scottish Philosophy (1875), pp. 162–173; A. Bain, Mental Science, pp. 208, 313 and app. 29, 65, 88, 89; Moral Science, pp. 639 seq.; Sir L. Stephen, English Thought in the XVIIIth Century.

STEWART, SIR HERBERT (1843–1885), British soldier, eldest son of the Rev. Edward Stewart, was born on the 30th of June 1843 at Sparsholt, Hampshire. He was educated at Winchester and entered the army in 1863. After serving in India with his regiment (37th Foot) he returned to England in 1873, having exchanged into the 3rd Dragoon Guards. In 1877 he entered the staff college and also the Inner Temple. In 1878 he was sent out to South Africa, served in the Zulu War and against Sikukuni. As chief staff officer under Sir G. Pomeroy Colley he was present at Majuba (Feb. 27, 1881), where he was made prisoner by a Boer patrol and detained until the end of March. In August 1882 he was placed on the staff of the cavalry division in Egypt. After Tel-el-Kebir (Sept. 13, 1882) he headed a brilliant advance upon Cairo, and took possession of the town and citadel. He was three times mentioned in despatches, and made a brevet-colonel, C.B., and aide-de-camp to the queen. In January 1884 he was sent to Suakin in command of the cavalry under Sir Gerald Graham, and took part as brigadier in the actions from El Teb to the advance on Tamaneb. His services were recognized by the honour of K.C.B., and he was assistant adjutant and Q.M.G. in the south- eastern district in England from April to September 1884. He then joined the expedition for the relief of Khartum, and in December, when news from Gordon decided Lord Wolseley to send a column across the desert of Metemma, Stewart was entrusted with the command. On the 16th of January 1885, he found the enemy in force near the wells of Abu Klea, and brilliantly repulsed their fierce charge on the following morning. Leaving the wounded under guard, the column moved forward on the 18th through bushy country towards Metemma, 23 m. off. Meanwhile the enemy continued their attacks, and on the morn- ing of the 19th Stewart was wounded and obliged to hand over the command to Sir Charles Wilson. He lingered for nearly a month, living long enough to hear of his promotion to the rank of major-general "for distinguished service in the field." He died on the way back from Khartum to Korti on the 16th of February, and was buried near the wells of Jakdul. In the telegram reporting his death Lord Wolseley summed up his character and career in the words: " No braver soldier or more brilliant leader of men ever wore the Queen's uniform."

STEWART, J. (?JAMES), of Baldynneis (fl. 1590), Scottish verse writer, is known as the translator of Ariosto's Orlando Furioso. The work is an abridgment in twelve cantos and has the historical interest of having preceded Sir John Harington's translation (1591). The volume containing this version and other poems (of indifferent quality) is preserved in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh. It bears the title Ane Abbregement of Roland Fvriovs, translait ovt of Aroist: togither vith sym Rapsodies of the Avthor's yovthfvll braine, and last ane Schersing ovt of trew Felicitie; composit in Scotis meiter be J. Stewart of Baldynneis. This MS. appears to be the original which was once in the possession of James VI. Extracts are printed in Irving's History of Scotish Poetry (1861).

STEWART, JOHN (1749–1822), British traveller, was born in London of humble parentage. After an unruly career at school he entered the service of the East India Company at Madras in 1763, but he threw up his position about two years later and became interpreter to Hyder Ali, afterwards serving as a general in his army; subsequently he served the nabob of Arcot, whose chief minister he became. Having enriched himself in this capacity, he began a series of travels through India, Persia, Ethiopia and Abyssinia, which earned him the nickname of "Walking Stewart." About 1783 he returned to Europe, where he cut a curious figure by wearing Armenian dress. He crossed over to America in 1791 and had various adventures, but soon came back to Europe, and made the acquaintance of Wordsworth in Paris and later of De Quincey in Bath. Be- coming short of money, he again went to America, where he supported himself by lecturing. Having returned to Europe, Stewart's fortunes began to mend. In 1813 a claim he had made against the nabob of Arcot was settled by the East India Com- pany for £10,000, and he took rooms in London and settled down to enjoy life, airing his opinions on literature and art. He died on the 20th of February 1822. De Quincey (see Collected Writings, 1890, vol. iii.) gives various particulars of him.

STEWART, JULIUS L. (1855- ), American artist, was born at Philadelphia on the 6th of September 1855. His father, William Hood Stewart, was a distinguished collector of the fine arts, an early patron of Fortuny and the Barbizon artists, and lived in Paris during the latter part of his life. The son was a pupil of J. L. Gerome, at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, and of Raymondo de Madrazo. Among his principal paintings are " The Hunt Ball," Essex Club, Newark, New Jersey; " Full Speed," in James Gordon Bennett's collection; " Five o'clock Tea," and " Court in Cairo."

STEWART, WILLIAM (c. 1480-c. 1550), Scottish poet and translator, descendant of one of the illegitimate sons of Alexander Stewart, earl of Buchan, the " Wolf of Badenoch," was a member of the university of St Andrews. He was in orders, and a hanger-on at the court of James V. The last entry of the pay- ment of a pension of £40 appears in the accounts of 1541. He was known as a poet in his own day: Lyndsay and Rolland refer to him. Portions of his minor verse are preserved in the Bannatyne and Maitland Folio MSS. His chief work is a metrical translation of Hector Boece's History, in obedience to the command of James V., who entrusted Bellenden with its translation into Scots prose.

Stewart's version remained in MS. till 1858, when it was edited by W. Turnbull for the " Rolls Series " (3 vols.). The MS. is now in the library of the university of Cambridge.

STEWART, SIR WILLIAM (c. 1540-c. 1605), Scottish politician, began life as a soldier in the Netherlands, where he became a colonel and entered into communications with Lord Burghley on the progress of affairs. In the year 1582 he was in Scotland, where James VI. made him captain of his guard. Having visited the English court in the king's interest in 1583, Stewart helped to free James from William Ruthven, earl of Gowrie, and to restore James Stewart, earl of Arran, to power; he was made a privy councillor and for a time assisted Arran to govern Scotland. In 1584 he captured Gowrie at Dundee. In 1585 he and Arran lost their power, and Stewart went to Denmark and France on secret errands for the king. He commanded the ships which conveyed James and his bride Anne from Denmark in 1590, and the same year was sent