College, Manchester, and retained that chair until his death, which happened near Drogheda, in Ireland, on the 19th of December 1887. He was the author of several successful textbooks of science, and also of the article on “Terrestrial Magnetism” in the ninth edition of this Encyclopaedia. In conjunction with Professor P. G. Tait he wrote The Unseen Universe, at first published anonymously, which was intended to combat the common notion of the incompatibility of science and religion.
STEWART, CHARLES (1778–1869), American naval officer, was born at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on the 28th of July 1778, of poor Irish parents. At the age of thirteen he shipped as cabin boy on a merchant vessel, and soon commanded a ship in the India trade. He entered the United States navy in March 1798 as lieutenant on the frigate “United States,” and in 1800, when in command of the “Experiment,” took the French privateers “Deux Amis” and “Diane.” In 1802–4 he served against Tripoli, first as executive officer of the "Constellation" and then as commander of the “Siren.” In 1806 he became a captain. From 1808 to 1812 he was in the merchant service, but on the outbreak of hostilities against Great Britain returned to the navy, and with Commander William Bainbridge is said to have persuaded President Madison to send the navy to sea instead of using it only for harbour defence. Placed in the command of the “Constellation,” he was closely blockaded at Norfolk. Virginia. In 1813 he was placed in command of the “Constitution,” and in February 1815 captured the “Cyane” and the “Levant,” though the “Levant,” was retaken. Later he commanded the Mediterranean squadron, the Pacific squadron, the home squadron and the Philadelphia navy yard. He was retired in 1855, and became rear-admiral on the retired list in 1862. He died in Bordentown, New Jersey, on the 6th of November 1869. His daughter, Delia Tudor, married, in 1834, John Henry Parnell, and became the mother of the Irish leader. Charles Stewart Parnell.
STEWART, SIR DONALD MARTIN (1824–1900), British field marshal, son of Robert Stewart of Forres, Elginshire, was born at Mount Pleasant, near Forres, on the 1st of March 1824. Educated at schools at Findhorn, Dufftown and Elgin, and at Aberdeen University, he entered the Bengal army in 1840, and served in 1854 and 1855 in the frontier expeditions against the Mohmands, and Afridis Aka and Bari Khel (medal and clasp). In the Indian Mutiny in 1857 Stewart, after a famous ride from Agra to Delhi with despatches, served on the staff at the siege and capture of Delhi and of Lucknow, and afterwards through the campaign in Rohilkhand (medal and two clasps, and brevet-major and lieutenant-colonel). For nine years he was assistant and deputy-adjutant-general of the Bengal army, commanded the Bengal brigade in the Abyssinian expedition in 1867 (medal and C.B.), and became a major-general in 1868. He reorganized the penal settlement of the Andaman Islands, where he was commandant when Lord Mayo was assassinated, and, after holding the Lahore command, was promoted lieutenant-general in 1877, and commanded the Kandahar field force in the Afghan War in 1878 (K.C.B. and thanks of parliament). In 1880 he made a difficult march from Kandahar to Kabul, fighting on the way the battles of Ahmed Khel and Urzu, and held supreme military and civil command in northern Afghanistan. On hearing of the Maiwand disaster, he despatched Sir Frederick Roberts with a division on his celebrated march from Kabul to Kandahar, and himself led the rest of the army back to India by the Khyber Pass (medal with clasp, G.C.B., C.I.E., baronetcy, and thanks of parliament). Promoted general in 1881, he was for five years commander-in-chief in India, and afterwards member of the council of the secretary of state for India until his death. He was made G.C.S.I, in 1885, promoted to be field marshal in 1894, and appointed governor of Chelsea Hospital in 1895. He died at Algiers on the 26th of March 1900.
Stewart, Dugald (1753-1828), Scottish philosopher, was born in Edinburgh on the 22nd of November 1753. His father, Matthew Stewart (1715-1785), was professor of mathematics in the university of Edinburgh (1747-1772). Dugald Stewart was educated in Edinburgh at the high school and the university, where he read mathematics and moral philosophy under Adam Ferguson. In 1771, in the hope of gaining a Snell exhibition and proceeding to Oxford to study for the English Church, he went to Glasgow, where he attended the classes of Thomas Reid. While he owed to Reid all his theory of morality, he repaid the debt by giving to Reid's views the advantage of his admirable style and academic eloquence. In Glasgow Stewart boarded in the same house with Archibald Alison, author of the Essay on Taste, and a lasting friendship sprang up between them. After a single session in Glasgow, Dugald Stewart, at the age of nineteen, was summoned by his father, whose health was beginning to fail, to conduct the mathematical classes in the university of Edinburgh. After acting three years as his father's substitute he was elected professor of mathematics in conjunction with him in 1775. Three years later Adam Ferguson was appointed secretary to the commissioners sent out to the American colonies, and at his urgent request Stewart lectured as his substitute. Thus during the session 1778-1779, in addition to his mathematical work, he delivered an original course of lectures on morals. In 1783 he married Helen Bannatyne, who died in 1787, leaving an only son, Colonel Matthew Stewart. In 1785 he succeeded Ferguson in the chair of moral philosophy, which he filled for a quarter of a century and made a centre of intellectual and moral influence. Young men were attracted by his reputation from England, and even from the Continent and America. Among his pupils were Sir Walter Scott, Jeffrey, Cockburn, Francis Horner, Sydney Smith, Lord Brougham, Dr Thomas Brown, James Mill, Sir James Mackintosh and Sir Archibald Alison. The course on moral philosophy embraced, besides ethics proper, lectures on political philosophy or the theory of government, and from 1800 onwards a separate course of lectures was delivered on political economy, then almost unknown as a science to the general public. Stewart's enlightened political teaching was sufficient, in the times of reaction succeeding the French Revolution, to draw upon him the undeserved suspicion of disaffection to the constitution. The summers of 1788 and 1789 he spent in France, where he met Suard, Degérando, Raynal, and learned to sympathize with the revolutionary movement.
In 1790 Stewart married a second time. Miss Cranstoun, who became his wife, was a lady of birth and accomplishments, and he was in the habit of submitting to her criticism whatever he wrote. A son and a daughter were the issue of this marriage. The death of the former in 1809 was a severe blow to his father, and was the immediate cause of his retirement from the active duties of his chair. Before that, however, Stewart had not been idle as an author. As a student in Glasgow he wrote an essay on Dreaming. In 1792 he published the first volume of the Elements of the Philosophy of the Human Mind; the second volume appeared in 1814, and the third not till 1827. In 1793 he printed a textbook, Outlines of Moral Philosophy, which went through many editions; and in the same year he read before the Royal Society of Edinburgh his account of the Life and Writings of Adam Smith. Similar memoirs of Robertson the historian and of Reid were afterwards read before the same body and appear in his published works. In 1805 Stewart published pamphlets defending Mr (afterwards Sir John) Leslie against the charges of unorthodoxy made by the presbytery of Edinburgh. In 1806 he received in lieu of a pension the nominal office of the writership of the Edinburgh Gazette, with a salary of £300. When the shock of his son's death incapacitated him from lecturing during the session of 1809-1810, his place was taken, at his own request, by Dr Thomas Brown, who in 1810 was appointed conjoint professor. On the death of Brown in 1820 Stewart retired altogether from the professorship, which was conferred upon John Wilson, better known as "Christopher North." From 1809 onwards Stewart lived mainly at Kinneil House, Linlithgowshire, which was placed at his disposal by the duke of Hamilton. In 1810 appeared the Philosophical Essays, in 1814 the second volume of the Elements, in 1815 the first part and in 1821 the second part of the "Dissertation" written for the Encyclopaedia Britannica "Supplement,"