Page:Encyclopædia Britannica, Ninth Edition, v. 11.djvu/165

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modern.]
153
GREECE

books in French. They have also produced many treatises on law, political economy, and on mathematics and the physical sciences. Little has been accomplished in the way of original novel-writing. We have seen that Panagiotis and Alexander Sontsos and Rangabé wrote novels, and others have done so likewise, but with moderate success. One recent work, Ὴ Πάπισσα Ίωάννα, by Roidos, has gained considerable popularity, and is written in an attractive and vigorous style. Another novelist, Stephanos Xenos, is known to English readers by his work on the Ionian Islands called East and West. He is the author of a novel called the Devil in Turkey, and he wrote in Greek an interesting account of the Exhibition in London in 1851. Several ladies have distinguished themselves in the field of Greek literature. Especially deserving of mention is Dora d'Istria, whose work on the Women of the West, contributed to the Pandora and forming a pendant to her Women of the East, written in French, shows remarkable powers of research, exposition, and criticism. The Greeks, as might have been expected, have produced good editions of the classical writers. They have also done much to elucidate the archæology of their country, though most of their works on this subject are written in foreign languages. Among these works especially deserving mention are Ancient Athens of Pittakis, in French ; the Gravestones of the Ancient Greeks, by Pervanoglous, in German ; the Hellenic Antiquities by Rangabé, in French ; the Sepulchral Inscriptions of Attica, by Coumanoudis, in modern Greek ; and Dodona and its Ruins, by Carapanos, in French. The works of Lambros on numismatics are of great value. The Greeks have also contributed much to a knowledge of the ancient Greek language. Asopios has gained a great name in this direction, and the contributions of Constantinos Contos are very valuable. They have also done much to collect materials for a knowledge of existing dialects. Investigations have been made into the dialects of the Tzaconians by Œconomos and Neo-Locrian by Chalkiopoulos, and lists of peculiar words and forms to be found in Cythera, Chios, Crete, Cyprus, Locris, and other places, have appeared in Pandora and other journals. Castorchis has written much and well on Latin literature. The Greeks have a very large number of newspapers and journals, if we consider the number of the population ; but, as might be expected, their existence is precarious, and many are short lived. Translations abound in modern Greek, especially from the French, but the Greeks have also translated classical English and German works, and novels of all kinds. The translations include those of Müller and Donaldson's History of Greek Literature by Valettas, and Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, and Macbeth by Bikelas.

Authorities.—A. R. Rangabé, Histoire littéraire de la Grèce Histoire Littéraire de la Grèce Moderne, Paris, 1877 ; Dr Rudolf Nicolai, Geschichte der neugriechischen Literatur, Leipsic, 1876 ; Alfred Bougeault, Histoire des Littératures Étrangères, vol. iii., Paris, 1876 ; A. Papadopoulos Bretos, Νεοελληνικὴ Φιλολογία, Athens, 1854-57 ; Constantinos Sathas, Νεοελληνικὴ Φιλολογία, Athens, 1868 ; the work of Rizos Neroulos, and the collections of Mavophrydis, Legrand, Wagner, and Sathas mentioned above ; Leake, Researches in Greece, London, 1814 ; short sketches of the literature in J. Donaldson's Modern Greek Grammar, Edin., 1853, in Geldart, The Modern Greek Language, 1870, and in Sargeant's New Greece. A full account of modern Greek grammars is given in Mullach's Grammatik der Griechischen Vulgarsprache, Berlin, 1856, and in the prefaces by Legrand to the 'Grammar of Sophianos, Paris, 1874, and his own Grammaire Grecque Moderne, Paris, 1878. Dictionaries :—Kind, Modern Greek and German ; Byzantios and Dehèque, Modern Greek and French ; Contopoulos, Modern Greek and English ; Sophocles, Byzantine Greek and English. Collections of Modern Greek Poetry :—Chantseris, Νέος Έλληνικὸς Παρνασσός, Athens, 1841 ; Tepharikis, Παρνασσός, Athens, 1868 ; Antonio Manaraki, Neugrieschischer Parnass, Berlin, 1879. Selections of poems :—Kind's Neugriechische Anthologie, Leipsic, 1847 ; J. Donaldson, Lyra Græca, Edin., 1854 ; Felton's Selections from Modern Greek Writers in Prose and Poetry, Cambridge, U. S., 1857 ; Vincent and Dickson, Handbook of Modern Greek, London, 1879. Collections of ballads by Fauriel, Zampelios, Passow, Tepharikis, Legrand, and of Cretan ballads by Anton Jeannaraki. Discussion of the modern Greek language and of ballads in Professor Blackie's Horæ Hellenicæ, 1874, and of the ballads in Tozer's Researches in the Highlands of Turkey, 1869.

(J. D.)


Index.

Achæan league, 107.

Æolic dialect, 132.

Æschylus, 140.

Ætolian league, 107.

Agriculture, 87.

Alaric, 112.

Alexander the Great, 104, 107 ; literature under, 143.
Alexius Comnenus, 118.

Amphictyonies, 92.

Animals, 82.

Anthology, 144, 146.

Arcadian dialect, 131.

Area, 81.

Areopagus, 97.

Argos, 93.

Aristagoras, 98.

Aristarchus, 143.

Aristophanes, 140.

Asia, settlements in, 105.

Athens, supremacy of, 100 ; under Justinian, 113.
Attica, 95. Attic dialect, 134 ; literature, 140.
Attila, 112.

Avars, invasion of, 112.

Ballads, war, 137.

Basil I., 116.

Bœotian dialect, 132.

Bohemund, 118.

Boundaries, 126.

Bulgarian settlers, 112 ; wars, 115.
Byron, his interest in the Greeks, 125.
Byzantine empire, 106, 110, 114-120 ; language under, 135 ; literature, 145.
Chios, massacre of, 125.

Christianity, influence of, 110.

Church, Greek, rise of, 111 ; separation of Eastern and Western, 114 ; under the Turks, 123 ; its present administration, 86.
Cities, political life in, 142.

Cleomenes, 97.

Climate, 82.

Clisthenes, 97.

Cnidus, battle of, 103.

Coast, 81.

Colonization, 95.

Comedy, 140.

Commentaries, 146.

Commerce, modern, 88.

Comneni dynasty, 117.

Constantine, revival under, 110.

Constantinople, founding of, 111 ; sieges of, 115 ; fall of, 120.
Crete, struggles in, 121.

Crusades, 118.

Currants, 88.

Cyclic poems, 137.

Cylon, 96.

Cyprian dialect, 133.

Darius, 98.

Delos, confederacy of, 100.

Delphi, 98.

Demosthenes, 103, 142.

Dialects, 132 ; modern, 148.
Dictionaries, 146.

Diodorus Siculus, 144.

Dorians, 92.

Draco, 96.

Drama, 140 ; of Byzantine period, 145.
Education, modern, 86.

Elean dialect, 132.

Elegies, 138.

Epaminondas, 103.

Epic dialect, 134 ; poetry, 137.
Euripides, 140.

Festivals, ancient, 98.

Fiction, 147.

Finances, modern, 89.

Games, ancient, 98.

Geography, 80.

Geology, 81.

George, King, 126.

Gothic invasions, 109, 112.

Government, modern, 85.

Grammar, 126.

Guiscard, Robert, 118.

Hellas, 80, 90, 93.

Hellen, legend of, 131.

Hellenism, 143.

Heraclidæ, 92.

Herodotus, 141.

Hesiodic poetry, 138.

Historical literature, 145.

History, ancient, 89 ; post-classical, 105 ; recent, 121.
Homeric language, 134 ; poems, 137 ; hymns, 138.
Huns, invasion of, 112.

Hymns, 136, 146.

Hypsilantes, 125.

Iambic verse, 139.

Iconoclasm, 114.

Iliad, 137.

Independence, war of, 125.

Inhabitants, modern, 83 ; nationality of, 116.
lonians, 90.

Ionic revolt, 98.

Ionic dialect, 134.

Italy, colonization of, 95.

Janissaries, 120.

Justinian I., 112.

Kleruchia, the first. 98.

Laconian dialect, 133.

Lamian war, 107.

Language, 125 ; modern, 119, 147.
Lascaris, Theodore, 119.

Leo III., 114.

Lesbio-Æolic dialect, 132.

Lexicons, 146.

Literature, early, 136 ; Attic, 140 ; Hellenistic, 113 ; Roman period, 144 ; Byzantine period, 145 ; modern, 150.
Lucian, 144.

Lycurgus, 93.

Lyric poetry, 139.

Macedonia, rise of, 104.

Manufactures, 88.

Marathon, battle of, 99.

Michael Palæologus, 120.

Miltiades, 99.

Mithradatic war, 108.

Money, 89.

Mountains, 81.

Music, works on, 147.

Nationality of modern Greeks, 83, 116.

Navarino, battle of, 125.

Neo-Hellenic Greek, 148.

New Testament Greek, 135, 147.

Nicæa, empire of, 119.

Odyssey, 137.

Olympic festival, 94.

Oratory, 142.

Ostracism, 97.

Otho, King, 125.

Ottoman conquests, 118, 120 ; subjection, 121.
Palæologi dynasty, 120.

Pausanias, 100.

Pelasgians, 90.

Peloponnesian war, 101.

Peloponnesus, settlement of, 93.

Pericles, 101.

Persian wars, 98, 112.

Phanariots, 124.

Pharsalia, battle of, 108.

Philip of Macedon, 104.

Philosophical literature, 142, 147.

Phœnicians, 90.

Physical features, 81.

Pindar, 139.

Pisistratus, 97.

Plague of 747, 116.

Poetry, 137-139, 144, 145.

Polybius, 144.

Population, modern, 84.

Pronunciation, 135.

Prose literature, 141, 146.

Races, modern, 83, 116.

Rangabé, 152.

Religion, modern, 86 ; ancient, 91.
Rhetoricians, 144, 147.

Rivers, 81.

Roman rule, 108.

Russians, early invasion of, 115 ; their sympathy with modern Greeks, 122.
Salamis, battle of, 100.

Samuel the Bulgarian, 115.

Saracenic wars, 115.

Science, 143.

Seljuk Turks, conquests of, 118, 120.

Sicily, colonization of, 95 ; expedition against, 102 ; freed from the Carthaginians, 104.
Simonides, 139.

Slavery, extinction of, 113.

Slavonic settlers, 112.

Solon, 96.

Sontsos, brothers, 151.

Sophocles, 140.
Sparta, 93 ; rule of, 102.
States, ancient, 91.
Syracuse, expedition against, 102 ; restoration of democracy in, 104.
Trade, modern, 87 ; under the Turks, 124.
Tragedy, 140.

Trojan war, poems of the, 137.

Turks, conquests of the, 118 ; subjection by, 121.
Varangians, 116.

Vegetation, 81.

Venetians, occupation by the, 121.

Wallachian kingdom, 118.

Weights and measures, modern, 89.

Wine, 88.

Xenophon, 141.

Xerxes, 99.