books in French. They have also produced many treatises on law, political economy, and on mathematics and the physical sciences. Little has been accomplished in the way of original novel-writing. We have seen that Panagiotis and Alexander Sontsos and Rangabé wrote novels, and others have done so likewise, but with moderate success. One recent work, Ὴ Πάπισσα Ίωάννα, by Roidos, has gained considerable popularity, and is written in an attractive and vigorous style. Another novelist, Stephanos Xenos, is known to English readers by his work on the Ionian Islands called East and West. He is the author of a novel called the Devil in Turkey, and he wrote in Greek an interesting account of the Exhibition in London in 1851. Several ladies have distinguished themselves in the field of Greek literature. Especially deserving of mention is Dora d'Istria, whose work on the Women of the West, contributed to the Pandora and forming a pendant to her Women of the East, written in French, shows remarkable powers of research, exposition, and criticism. The Greeks, as might have been expected, have produced good editions of the classical writers. They have also done much to elucidate the archæology of their country, though most of their works on this subject are written in foreign languages. Among these works especially deserving mention are Ancient Athens of Pittakis, in French ; the Gravestones of the Ancient Greeks, by Pervanoglous, in German ; the Hellenic Antiquities by Rangabé, in French ; the Sepulchral Inscriptions of Attica, by Coumanoudis, in modern Greek ; and Dodona and its Ruins, by Carapanos, in French. The works of Lambros on numismatics are of great value. The Greeks have also contributed much to a knowledge of the ancient Greek language. Asopios has gained a great name in this direction, and the contributions of Constantinos Contos are very valuable. They have also done much to collect materials for a knowledge of existing dialects. Investigations have been made into the dialects of the Tzaconians by Œconomos and Neo-Locrian by Chalkiopoulos, and lists of peculiar words and forms to be found in Cythera, Chios, Crete, Cyprus, Locris, and other places, have appeared in Pandora and other journals. Castorchis has written much and well on Latin literature. The Greeks have a very large number of newspapers and journals, if we consider the number of the population ; but, as might be expected, their existence is precarious, and many are short lived. Translations abound in modern Greek, especially from the French, but the Greeks have also translated classical English and German works, and novels of all kinds. The translations include those of Müller and Donaldson's History of Greek Literature by Valettas, and Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, and Macbeth by Bikelas.