Page:Encyclopedia of Virginia Biography volume 1.djvu/20

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land, he paid a visit to South America and the West India Islands. Not finding much encouragement in England, which was not yet a maritime nation, he entered the service of the King of Spain and was appointed "pilot major." In 1526 he sailed to Brazil and spent four years in exploring the country, but was imprisoned a year on his return, on the charge of mismanagement. He was, however, soon reinstated in his former position, and remained for many years examiner of pilots at Seville, during which time he made his famous "mappe monde," which was first engraved in 1544. He returned to England on the death of Henry VIII., and Edward VI. gave him a pension and made him grand pilot of England. Under his leadership a Company of Discoverers, of which he was made governor for life, was formed. They sent out in 1553 an expedition under Sir Hugh Willoughby and Richard Chancellor, which reached the White Sea and discovered Russia. This ancient company, which still exists, has a direct connection with the settlement of Virginia. Sir Thomas Smythe, treasurer of the Virginia Company of London, was a successor of Cabot as governor of this company in 1607, and its ships were employed in taking emigrants to Virginia. Sebastian Cabot died about 1557.

Hawkins, William, son of John Hawkins, Esq., of Tavistock, Devonshire, and Joan, daughter of William Amidas, Esq., of Lancaster, Cornwall. He made several voyages to the coast of Africa and carried slaves from thence to Brazil in 1530, and after. He married Joan, daughter of William Trelawney, Esq., of Cornwall. He was the father of Sir John Hawkins.

Elizabeth, Queen of England, daughter of Henry VIII. by Anne Boleyn was born at Greenwich, September 7, 1533. She was educated by Grindall and Ascham, who made her a great scholar and an expert linguist. She succeeded to the throne on the death of her sister Mary, November 17, 1558. Her reign lasted 45 years, and it is sufficient to say that she held with honor and glory the central figure of a period that has hardly a parallel in history for the outburst of activity along all lines—literary, political, maritime and military. She encouraged especially Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Sir Walter Raleigh in their plans of colonizing Virginia, and when Sir Richard Grenville returned with his accounts of the new found land she gave it the name of "Virginia" in memory of herself as the Virgin Queen. She died March 24, 1603.

Cecil, William, Lord Burleigh, the great minister of State to Queen Elizabeth. He was born at Bourne, Lincolnshire, September 13, 1520. His biography would be almost a history of the times in which he lived. He patronized Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Sir Walter Raleigh, and all the other English voyagers for discovery. He was a man of immense capacity for business, and held the full confidence of the Queen. He died May 4, 1598.

Walsingham, Sir Francis, third and youngest son of William Walsingham, of Scadbury, parish of Chislehurst; principal Secretary of State of Queen Elizabeth in 1573, and "one of the pillars of her throne." He was a promoter of all the great expeditions during his time, and staunch friend of Gilbert's and Raleigh's plans to colonize America. He was born in 1536, died April 6, 1590, and was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral, London.

Hawkins, Sir John, a great navigator, son of William Hawkins, was born at Plymouth.