Page:Essentials in Conducting.djvu/71

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indicates an increase in the amount of tone, coupled with a very gradual acceleration in tempo, all proceeding by slow degrees, and perhaps accompanied by a rise from a low pitch register to higher ones. If on the other hand, he wants to let down in emotional intensity, he does the opposite of all these things. The combina- tion of crescendo and ritardando is also tremendously effective.

In order to bring together in fairly comprehensive array the terms that are ordinarily used by the composer to indicate various expressional effects, a table of the most frequently encountered dynamic expressions is here included.

Pianississimo (ppp)\ ,

.... > (as softly as possible; pianissimo possimle J

pianissimo (pp) (superlative of piano very softly)

piano (p) (softly)

piii piano (more softly)

U piii pian ) (most softly)

piano assai (very softly)

mezzo-piano (mp) (moderately softly)

forte (f) (loudly)

fortissimo (ff) (superlative of forte very loudly)

fortississimo (fff) (as loudly as possible)

piii forte (more loudly)

il piii forte (most loudly)

il piii forte possibile (as loudly as possible)

mezzo forte (mf) (moderately loudly)

forte-piano (fp) (loudly followed immediately by softly)

forzandfo (z) ] (These words and signs indicate that a single tone

sforzando (sf or sfz) or chord is to be accented, the amount of stress de-

forzato (fz) > pending upon the character of the passage and of

sforzato (sf or sfz) \ the composition)

> or A j

rinforzando (rinf) } (reinforced; a definite increase in power extending rinforzato (rfz) J through a phrase or passage) crescendo (cresc. or ~=^ ) (gradually becoming louder)

decrescendo (decresc. or - =;= ~ ) 1 ,

. > (gradually becoming softer)

diminuendo (dim. or ) J

crescendo poco a poco (becoming louder little by little) crescendo subito (becoming louder immediately)

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