Page:Essentials in Conducting.djvu/72

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crescendo molto (becoming much louder)
crescendo al fortissimo (becoming gradually louder until the fortissomo point has been reached)
crescendo poi diminuendo (gradually louder then gradually softer)
crescendo e diminuendo
crescendo ed animando (gradually louder and faster)
diminuendo al pianissimo (becoming gradually softer until the pianissimo point is reached)
morendo (gradually dying away, i.e., becoming slower and softer by very small degrees)
con amore (with tenderness)
con bravura (with boldness)
con energia (with energy)
con espressione (with expression)
con brio (with brilliancy)
con fuoco (with fire)
con passione (with passion)
con grazia (with grace)
con tenerezza (with tenderness)
dolce (gently) (literally, sweetly)
giocoso (humorously) (cf. jocose)
giojoso (joyfully) (cf. joyous)
conmaesta (majestically)
pastorale (in pastoral, i.e., in simple and unaffected style)
pomposo (pompously)
scherzando (jokingly)
sotto voce (with subdued voice)

We shall close our discussion of the subject of dynamics with a brief presentation of a few practical matters with which every amateur conductor should be familiar.

The pianissimo of choruses and orchestras is seldom soft enough. The extreme limit of soft tone is very effective in both choral and orchestral music, and most conductors seem to have no adequate notion of how soft the tone may be made in such passages. This is especially true of chorus music in the church service; and