288 Greek Votive Offerings.
because an early statue of Poseidon must have been a wooden xoanon. And for the preservation of the trident-head without the shaft attached compare the numerous Greek coins of Corinth, Leucas, Mantinea, Troezen, &c., on which Poseidon is symbolised by his trident-head alone. A theory which Dr. Rouse does not record, but which is at least as deserving of notice, is that as Mr. A. H. Smith. He suggested once to me that the mystic E might possibly be explained by the resemblance that it bears to the 'Μ' shaped window or smoke-hole over the door of hut-urns from Etruria (e.g. Dar.-Sagl., ii. 349, fig. 2508). This would suit Pausanias' statement that the first temple at Delphi was a hut of laurel-boughs (Paus. 10. 5. g), and perhaps accounts for the dedication of the E in the pronaos. But, as Dr. Rouse says, "we have no means of knowing."
There are two or three omissions in the chapter on "War" that might be supplied in a future edition. A propos of the trophy (p. 99) there is no discussion of the theory that it was an actual image of Zeus Tρόπaιoς: yet there is much to be said in favour of that view (see P. Wagler Die Eiche in alter und neuer Zeit ii. 2off.); indeed the trophy is definitely called "an image of Zeus" by Euripides (Phoen 1250 f. Zηυός...βρέτaς \ τρoπaίoν). Again, no mention is made at p. 103 of naval trophies in the Homeric age. Yet such there certainly were. For the tail-piece, which towered over the poop of a Homeric ship [Iliad 9. 241 άκρa κόρνμβa), seems to have been regarded as inviolable (Iliad 15. 716f. άΦλaότoν, "not to be broken off," from ά + Φλάω = Φλάω): to lop an enemy's tail-piece was to secure a trophy (Iliad 9. 241). Dr. Rouse recognises the custom for a later age at p. 133. The lion of Chaeronea and similar dedications are dealt with on p. 144: they are not, however, mere symbols of courage, as the text states, but survivals of the very ancient custom of carving lions to mount guard over the entrance to tombs (see Journ. Hell. Stud. xiv. 109 f.).