Page:Folk-lore - A Quarterly Review. Volume 22, 1911.djvu/420

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384 Reviews.

folklore both in speech and writing. In 1805 appeared the first ethnographic articles in the " New Diary of Warsaw " {Nowy Pamietfiik l-Varszawski\ and between 1807 and 181 1 several collections of folklore material were published. But we may consider A. Czarnocki as the real initiator of the ethnographic movement in Poland, by his collection and editing of materials between 1814 and 1820. Some more extensive publications followed, of the nature of monographs dealing with definite subjects and trying to exhaust them. We may note the general treatise of L. Golebiowski, Lud pohki ("The PoHsh People"), issued in 18203 the collection of Galician songs by W. Zaleski (1833); the Bialoruthenian songs by K. W. Wajcicki (1836); and the general collection of Polish songs by Z. Pauli (1838). But collecting activity was already quite general, and all the periodi- cals became full of articles which, although written by amateurs, undoubtedly contain valuable data, of which use has already been made. O. Kolberg, (whose extensive work on the Polish people is the largest and, on the whole, the best of the older sources in our possession), was a musician who started collecting Polish popular songs and gradually extended his research over the whole area of ethnography and nearly the whole of the country. During the years 1857-90 he published in 23 volumes an exceedingly rich collection, with some pictures illustrating national costumes and many musical notes ; the latter are particularly valuable, as music and song play an important part in the life of the people. Many of the melodies of Chopin are directly borrowed from Polish popular tunes. In 1857 also appeared a monograph on the people of the Ukraine by Nowosielski. After the seventies there began to be issued several periodical publications setting a much higher scientific standard. In 1877 the anthropological committee of the Academy of Science of Cracow began to issue annual reports, which from 1896 appear in a new series under the title Materjaty anthropologiorno-arcJieolgiocze i etnograficzne ("Anthro- pological, Archaeological, and Ethnographical Materials"). In 1884 a new annual was issued in Warsaw, the Famietink fizyogra- ficzny ("Physiographical Record"), dedicated to folklore research. These studies were also stimulated by the development of the University of Cracow, and amongst writers may be mentioned, —