Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/103

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This page was corrected according to Additions and Corrections that appear in the 1910 edition.

of Maqqēph). Cf. §27w. The 1st pets. sing. imperf. Piʿēl regularly has ־ֲ. Likewise ־ֲ is naturally found under א in cases where the Ḥaṭeph arises from a weakening of an original ă (e.g. אֲרִי lion, ground-form ʾary), and ־ֳ if there be a weakening of an original u (e.g. אֳנִי a fleet, עֳנִי affliction, cf. §93q, z).

 [22p]  (b) In the middle of a word after a long vowel, a Ḥaṭeph-Pathaḥ takes the place of a simple Šewâ mobile, e.g. הֹֽעֲלָה מֵֽאֲנָה (see §63p); but if a short vowel precedes, the choice of the Ḥaṭeph is generally regulated by it, e.g. Perf. Hiph. הֶֽעֱמִיד (see above, i), Infin. הַֽעֲמִיד (regular form הַקְטִיל); Perf. Hoph. הָֽעֳמַד (regular form הָקְטַל); but cf. שִֽׁחֲדוּ Jb 622 (§64a).

 [22q5. The ר, which in sound approximates to the gutturals (§6g), shares with the gutturals proper their first, and to a certain extent their second, peculiarity, viz.

(a) The exclusion of the strengthening, instead of which the preceding vowel is almost always lengthened, e.g. בֵּרַךְ he has blessed for birrakh, בָּרֵךְ to bless for barrēkh.

 [22r]  (b) The preference for ă as a preceding vowel, e.g. וַיַּרְא and he saw (from יִרְאֶה); וַיָּ֫סַר both for וַיָּ֫סָר and he turned back, and for וַיָּ֫סֶר and he caused to turn back.

 [22s]  The exceptions to a are מָרַּת mŏrrăth, Pr 1410; כָרַּת khŏrrăth and שָׁרֵּךְ šŏrrēkh, Ez 164 (cf. Pr 38); שֶׁרֹּאשִׁי Ct 52; הַרְּעִמָהּ 1 S 16; הַרְּאִיתֶם 1 S 1024, 1725, 2 K 632; exceptions to b are הִרִּדִיפֻהוּ Ju 2043 (cf. §20h); מִרְּדֹף 1 S 2328, 2 S 1816; also on account of דחיק (§20c), Pr 151, 2022, 2 Ch 2610; and on account of אתי מרחיק (§20f) 1 S 156, Jer 3912, ψ 525, Hb 313, Pr 1121, Jb 399, Ezr 96. A kind of virtual strengthening (after מִ‍ for מִן) is found in מִֽרָגְזֶךָ Is 143. In Samaritan and Arabic this strengthening has been retained throughout, and the LXX write e.g. Σάῤῥα for שָׂרָה. [So Baer (cf. his note on Jud 2043; also on Jer 3912, and several of the other passages in question): but Ginsburg only in 10 of the exceptions to b, and Jacob ben Ḥayyim and Kittel only in 5, viz. Jer 3912, Pr 1121, 151, ψ 525, Ezr 96.—S. R. D.]

§23. The Feebleness of the Gutturals א and ה.

 [23a1. The א, a light and scarcely audible guttural breathing, as a rule entirely loses its slight consonantal power whenever it stands without a vowel at the end of a syllable. It then remains (like the German h in roh, geh, nahte) merely as a sign of the preceding long vowel, e.g. מָצָא, מָלֵא, הוֹצִיא (but when a syllable is added with an introductory vowel, according to b below, we have, e.g. מְצָאַ֫נִי, הֽוֹצִיאַ֫נִי, since the א then stands at the beginning of the syllable, not מְצָאנִי, הוֹצִיאנִי), מְצֹא, כָּלוּא (cf., however, §74a), מָצָ֫אתָ (for māṣaʾtā), תִּמְצֶ֫אנָה. Similarly in cases like חֵטְא, וַיַּרְא, שָׁוְא, &c. (§19l), and even in דֶּ֫שֶׁא, פֶּ֫לֶא (see above, §22e), the א only retains an orthographic significance.

 [23b2. On the other hand, א is in general retained as a strong consonant whenever it begins a syllable, e.g. אָמַר, מָֽאֲסוּ, or when it is protected by a Ḥaṭeph after a short syllable, e.g. לֶֽאֱכֹל, and finally,