Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/117

From Wikisource
Jump to navigation Jump to search
This page needs to be proofread.


syllable, after the restoration of the short vowel, sometimes combines with the second to form a firmly closed syllable, e.g. לִנְפֹּל Nu 143 for lĭnephōl, and so almost always in the infin. constr. after ל (§45g); in isolated cases also with כְ‍, as כִּזְכֹּר Jer 172.

 [28b2. If a guttural with Ḥaṭeph follows, the original ă of the prefixes is retained before Ḥaṭeph Pathaḥ, but before Ḥaṭeph Seghol or Ḥaṭeph Qameṣ it is modified to the short vowel contained in the Ḥaṭeph. Thus arise the vowel groups ־ַֽ ־ֲ, ־ֶֽ ־ֱ, ־ָֽ ־ֳ, e.g. וַֽאֲנִי and I, כַּֽאֲשֶׁר as, לַֽעֲבֹד to serve, לֶֽאֱכֹל to eat, לָֽחֳלִי in sickness. On the Metheg with every such short vowel, see §16f, δ. Sometimes here also a fully closed syllable is formed. In such a case, the prefix takes the short vowel, which would have belonged to the suppressed Ḥaṭeph, e.g. לַחְטֹב for לַֽחֲטֹב; לַחְמָם Is 4714 for לַֽחֲמָם (see §67cc); לֶאְסֹר but also לֶֽאֱסֹר; and even וַעְצֹר Jb 42, cf. Gn 3216. So always in the Infin. and Imperat. Qal of the verbs הָיָה to be and הָיָה to live, e.g. לִֽהְיוֹת to be, וִֽהְיוּ and be ye; even with מִן, as מִֽהְיוֹת, on which cf. §102b; but וֶֽהְיֵה and be, וֶֽחְֽיֵה and live, have ĕ instead of ĭ under the prefix. For the Metheg, cf. §16f, ε.

 [28c3. When a Ḥaṭeph in the middle of a word, owing to flexional changes, would stand before a vocal Še, it is changed into the short vowel, with which it is compounded. This applies especially to cases in which the Ḥaṭeph stands under a guttural instead of quiescent Še, as an echo of the preceding short vowel, e.g. יַֽעֲמֹד he will stand (for יַעְמֹד), but plur. יַעֽמֲדוּ for yaamedhû, and נֶֽהֶֽפְכוּ for nĕhäphekhû (they have turned themselves), פָּֽעָלְךָ thy work, cf. §26k. The syllables are to be divided yăʿă-medhû, and the second ă is to be regarded exactly as the helping Pathaḥ in נַ֫עַד, &c.[1]

 [28d4. At the end of words, syllables occur which close with two consonants (§10i, §26r), but only when the latter of the two is an emphatic consonant (ט, ק) or a tenuis (viz. בּ, דּ, ךּ, תּ[2]), e.g. יֵשְׂטְ let him turn aside, וַיַּשְׁקְ and he caused to drink, אָמַ֫רְתְּ thou (fem.) hast said, וַיֵּבְךְּ and he wept, וְיֵרְדְּ and let him have dominion, וַיִּשְׁבְּ and he took captive.

 [28e]  This harsh ending is elsewhere avoided by the Masora,[3] which inserts between the two final consonants a helping vowel, usually

  1. In Ju 1613 read תַּֽאַרְגִי not (with Opitius, Hahn and others) תארגּי.
  2. With a final ףְּ, the only example is תּוֹסְףְּ Pr 306, where several MSS. and printed editions incorrectly have ףְ without Dageš. Instead of this masoretic caprice we should no doubt read תּ֫וֹסֶף.
  3. An analogy to this practice of the Masora is found among the modern Beduin, who pronounce such a helping vowel before h, ḥ, ḫ, ġ; cf. Spitta, Gramm. des arab. Vulgärdialektes von Aegypten, Lpz. 1880, §43d.