Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/177

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סַאסְּאָה Is 278, if that form is to be referred to an infinitive סַאְסֵא; perhaps also שִׁשֵּׁא Ez 392 for שׁאשׁא. This form also commonly expresses rapidly repeated movement, which all languages incline to indicate by a repetition of the sound,[1] e.g. צִפְצֵף to chirp; cf. in the Lexicon the nouns derived from גָּרַר, עוּף, and צָלַל.

 [55g]  As Hithpalpel we find יִשְׁתַּקְשְׁקוּן Na 25; וַתִּתְחַלְחַל Est 44; וַיִּתְמַרְמַר Dn 87, 1111. Of the same form is אֶדַּדֶּה Is 3815, if contracted from אֶתְדַּוְדֶּה or אתדידה from the root דו or די), and also הִתְמַהְמְהוּ tarry ye, Is 299 (but read probably הִתַּמְּהוּ), וַיִּתְמַהְמָהּ (in pause) Gn 1916, &c., if it is to be derived from מָהַהּ, and not Hithpaʿel from מַהְמַהּ.

 [55h]  Only examples more or less doubtful can be adduced of—

5. Tiphʿēl (properly Taphʿēl[2]): תִּקְטֵל, with ת prefixed, cf. תִּרְגַּ֫לְתִּי to teach to walk, to lead (denominative from רֶ֫גֶל) Ho 113; from a stem ל״ה, the imperfect יְרַֽחֲרֶה to contend with, Jer 125; participle, 2215 (from חָרָה to be hot, eager). Similarly in Aramaic, תַּרְגֵּם to interpret, whence also in Hebrew the passive participle מְתֻרְגָּם Ezr 47.

 [55i]  6. Šaphʿēl: שַׁקְטֵל, frequent in Syriac, e.g. שַׁלְהֵב from להב to flame; whence in Hebrew שַׁלְהֶ֫בֶת flame. Perhaps of the same form is שַׁבְּלוּל a snail (unless it be from the stem שׁבל), and שְׁקַעֲרוּרֹת, cf. §85, No. 50. This conjugation is perhaps the original of Hiphʿîl, in which case the ה, by a phonetic change which may be exemplified elsewhere, is weakened from a sibilant.

 [55k]  Forms of which only isolated examples occur are:—

7. קִטְלַט, passive קֻטְלַט; as מְחֻסְפָּס, Ex 1614, from חָסַף, חָשַׂף to peel, to scale.

8. קַטְקַל, in זַרְזִיף, from זָרַף.

9. נִתְקַטֵּל (regularly in Mishnic Hebrew[3]) a form compounded of Niphʿal and Hithpaʿēl; as וְנִוַּסְּרוּ for וְנִתְוַסְּרוּ that they may be taught, Ez 2348; נִכַּפֵּר probably an error for הִתְכַּפֵּר, Dt 218. On נִשְׁתָּֽוָה Pr 2715, see §75x.

§56. Quadriliterals.

On the origin of these altogether secondary formations cf. §30p. While quadriliteral nouns are tolerably numerous, only the following examples of the verb occur:

  1. Cf. Lat. tinnio, tintinno, our tick-tack, ding-dong, and the German wirrwarr, klingklang. The repetition of the radical in verbs ע״ע also produces this effect; as in לָקַק to lick, דָּקַק to pound, טָפֵף. The same thing is expressed also by diminutive forms, as in Latin by the termination -illo, e.g. cantillo, in German by -eln, -ern, e.g. flimmern, trillern, tröpfeln, to trickle.
  2. The existence of a Taphʿēl is contested on good grounds by Barth, Nominalbildung, p. 279.
  3. [See Segal, Mišnaic Hebrew, Oxf. 1909, p. 30 ff.]