crooked, חֲלַקְלַקּוֹת slippery places, עֲקַלְקַלּוֹת crooked (ways); פְּתַלְתֹּל tortuous; also words denoting colours, אֲדַמְדָּם (Lv 1342.49 in pause) reddish, fem. אֲדַמְדֶּ֫מֶת, plur. אֲדַמְדַּמֹּת; יְרַקְרַק greenish, plur. fem. יְרַקְרַקֹּת; qeṭalṭĭl, יְפֵיפִיָּה very fair (to be read in Jer 4620 for יפהפיה); qeṭalṭŭl, שְׁחַרְחֹ֫רֶת (fem.) blackish; אֲסַפְסֻף a rabble (augmented from אָסוּף collected). From a verb פ״י with aphaeresis of the initial syllable צֶֽאֱצָאִים offspring. Moreover, of the same form, probably, is חֲצֽוֹצְרָה a trumpet (for חֲצַרְצְרָה, cf. §55e). Also in Is 220 לַֽחֲפַרְפָּרוֹת is to be read instead of לַחְפֹּר פֵּרוֹת (from the sing. חֲפַרְפָּרָה a digging or burrowing animal, perhaps the mole). But פְּקַחְקוֹחַ opening, Is 611 (ed. Mant., Baer, Ginsb. פְּקַח־קוֹחַ), is an evident mistake due to dittography; read פְּקֹחַ as in 427.
IX. Nouns in which the Whole (Biliteral) Stem is repeated.
40. גַּלְגַּל a wheel, and, with attenuation of the first ă to ĭ, גִּלְגָּל (from גלל); fem. חַלְחָלָה anguish (from חוּל or חִיל); כִּכָּר (for kirkar) a talent; cf. also כּוֹכָב a star (from kăwkăb, Arabic kaukăb, for כַּבְכַּב), טֽוֹטָפֹת bands, for טַפְטָפֹת; צְלָצַל probably a whirring locust.
[p] 41. כַּלְכֵּל infin. Pilpēl (prop. Palpĭl) from כּוּל; fem. טַלְטֵלָה a hurling (from טוּל).
42. כַּדְכֹּד perhaps a ruby (for kădkŭd), from כדד.
43. קָדְקֹד the crown of the head (for qŭdqŭd), from קדד; fem. גֻּלְגֹּ֫לֶת a skull (for gŭlgŭlt), from גלל.
44. זַרְזִיר girded, from זרר; בַּקְבּוּק a bottle, from בקק; בַּרְבֻּרִים fattened birds(?).
[a] These include nouns which are directly derived from verbal forms having preformatives (Hiphʿîl, Hophʿal, Hithpaʿēl, Niphʿal, &c.), as well as those which are formed with other preformatives (א, י, מ, נ, ת), and finally those which are formed with afformatives. The quadriliterals and quinqueliterals also are taken in connexion with these formations, inasmuch as they arise almost always by the addition or insertion of one or two consonants to the triliteral stem.
X. Nouns with Preformatives.
[b] 45. Nouns with א prefixed. Cf. the substantives with א prosthetic (§19m), such as אֶזְרוֹעַ arm (Jer 3221, Jb 3122; elsewhere always זְרוֹעַ); אֶצְבַּע a finger, אַרְבֶּה a locust, אֶגְרוֹף fist (others mattock, or clod), אַשְׁמוּרָה or אַשְׁמֹ֫רֶת a watch. In these examples the א is a ‘euphonic’ prefix (Barth, ibid., § 150 b); in other cases it is ‘essential’; cf. especially the adjectives, אַכְזָב deceitful, אַכְזָר cruel, אֵיתָן perennial (for ʾaitan) [=the Arab. ‘elative’, used for expressing the compar. and superl. degrees]. The fem. אַזְכָּרָה fragrant part (of the meal-
- Or perhaps more correctly with Jacob, ZAW. 1897, p. 79, ‘declaration,’ i.e. the part of the meal-offering which ‘announces the sacrifice and its object’.