Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/345

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supported by the rather numerous examples of cohortative forms after wāw consec. of the imperfect (cf. §49e, as also ψ 666 שָׁם נִשְׂמְחָה there did we rejoice[1]; ψ 119163 וָֽאֲתַעֵ֑בָה; Pr 77), which can likewise only be explained as forms chosen merely for euphony, and therefore due to considerations of rhythm.

 [108h]  2. The cohortative is strange after עַד־ ψ 7317 until I went... אָבִ֫ינָה I considered their latter end; possibly a pregnant construction for ‘until I made up my mind, saying, I will consider’, &c. (but אָבִ֫ינָה Pr 77 is still dependent on the preceding וָ); עַד־אַרְגִּ֫יעָה Pr 1219 is at any rate to be explained in the same way (in Jer 4919, 5044 we have כִּי־א׳ with a similar meaning), as long as I (intentionally) wink with the eyelashes (shall wink). On the other hand, in Ex 3230 אֲכַפֵּר is to be read, with the Samaritan, instead of אֲכַפְּרָה after אוּלַי.

§109. Use of the Jussive.

 [109a]  As the cohortative is used in the 1st pers., so the jussive is especially found in the 2nd and 3rd pers. sing. and plur. to express a more or less definite desire that something should or should not happen (cf. for its form, which frequently coincides with that of the ordinary imperfect,[2] §48f, g). More particularly its uses may be distinguished as follows:

1. The jussive standing alone, or co-ordinated with another jussive:

 [109a]  (a) In affirmative sentences to express a command, a wish (or a blessing), advice, or a request; in the last case (the optative or precative) it is frequently strengthened by the addition of נָא. Examples: Gn 13 יְהִי אוֹר let there be light! Gn 16, 9, 11, &c. (the creative commands); Nu 626 the Lord lift up his countenance upon thee, and give thee peace! cf. verse 25. After particles expressing a wish, Gn 3034 לוּ יְהִי I would it might be; ψ 819 אִם־תִּשְׁמַע־לִי if thou wouldest hearken unto me! As a humble request, Gn 4433... יֵֽשֶׁב־נָא עַבְדְּךָ... וְהַנַּ֫עַי יַ֫עַל let thy servant, I pray thee, abide, &c., and let the lad go up, &c., Gn 474.

 [109c]  (b) In negative sentences to express prohibition or dissuasion, warning, a negative wish (or imprecation), and a request. The prohibitive particle used before the jussive (according to §107o) is almost always אַל־ (in negative desires and requests frequently

  1. Analogous to this cohortative (as equivalent to the imperfect) after שָׁם is the use of the historic imperf. after אָז, §107c.
  2. With regard to verbs ל״ה, it is true that the full form of the imperfect is frequently used with the meaning of the jussive (as also for the cohortative, see §108a, note 2), e.g. אַל־יִרְאֶה Jb 39 (but previously יְקַו let it look for!):especially in (Neh 23) and immediately before the principal pause, Gn 19 תֵּֽרָאֶה; Ju 639 יִהְֽיֶה, but previously יְהִי־נָא; Is 473 תֵּֽרָאֶה, previously תִּגָּל; ψ 1097. On the attempt to distinguish such jussives from the imperfect by means of a special meaning ־ֵה, see §75hh.