Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/50

From Wikisource
Jump to: navigation, search
This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated.


 [5b2. The Alphabet consists, like all Semitic alphabets, solely of consonants, twenty-two in number, some of which, however, have also a kind of vocalic power (§7b). The following Table shows their form, names, pronunciation, and numerical value (see k):—

FORM. NAME. PRONUNCIATION. NUMERICAL VALUE.
א ʾĀlĕph ʾ spiritus lenis
1
ב Bêth b (bh, but see §6n)
2
ג Gimĕl (Giml) g (gh, but see §6n)
3
ד Dālĕth d (dh, but see §6n)
4
ה h
5
ו Wāw (Wāu) w (u)[1]
6
ז Záyĭn z, as in English (soft s)
7
ח Ḥêth , a strong guttural
8
ט Ṭêth , emphatic t
9
י Yôd y (i)[1]
10
כ‍, final ך Kaph k (kh, but see §6n)
20
ל Lāmĕd l
30
מ‍, final ם Mêm m
40
נ‍, final ן Nûn n
50
ס Sāmĕkh s
60
ע ʿÁyĭn ʿ a peculiar guttural (see below)
70
פ, final ף p (f, see §6n)
80
צ‍, final ץ Ṣādê , emphatic s
90
ק Qôf q, a strong k[2] formed at the back of the palate
100
ר Rêš r
200
שׂ Śîn ś
300
שׁ Šîn[3] š, pronounced sh
300
ת Tāw (Tāu) t (th, buy see §6n)
400
  1. 1.0 1.1 Philippi, ‘Die Aussprache der semit. Consonanten ו und י,’ in ZDMG. 1886, p. 639 ff., 1897, p. 66 ff., adduces reasons in detail for the opinion that ‘the Semitic ו and י are certainly by usage consonants, although by nature they are vowels, viz. u and i, and consequently are consonantal vowels’; cf. §8m.
  2. As a representation of this sound the Latin q is very suitable, since it occupies in the alphabet the place of the Semitic ק (Greek κόππα).
  3. Nestle (Actes du onzième Congrès... des Orientalistes, 1897, iv. 113 ff.) has shown that the original order was שׁ, שׂ.