Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/513

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verb אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר; after בְּ Jer 211, 2 Ch 14 (בַּֽהֵכִין=בְּהַֽה׳=to the place where); after לְ Is 651 לְלוֹא שָׁאָ֫לוּ by them that asked not for me... לְלֹא בִקְשֻׁ֫נִי them that sought me not; Ez 133 that which they have not seen, but the text is hardly correct; after עַל ψ 119136, cf. §158b; after עִם 2 Ch 169.—A noun-clause follows לְ in Neh 810. An analogous instance in Aramaic is Ezr 514 to one whose name was Sheshbazzar [so in the papyri, see the Lexicon, p. 1116a].

§156. Circumstantial Clauses.

 [156a1. The statement of the particular circumstances under which a subject appears as performing some action, or under which an action (or an occurrence) is accomplished, is made especially (apart from relative clauses, see § 155) by means of noun-clauses connected by Wāw with a following subject (see further on this kind of circumstantial clause in §141e), and by verbal-clauses (see §142d). Very frequently, however, such statements of the particular circumstances are subordinated to the main clause by being simply attached, without Wāw, either as noun-clauses, sometimes extremely short (see c), or as verbal-clauses (see d–g).

 [156b]  Rem. Among relative clauses of this kind the commonest are the various noun-clauses, which are most closely subordinated to a preceding substantive without אֲשֶׁר, e.g. Gn 1612; also statements of weight, Gn 2422; of name, Jb 11 (also introduced by וּשְׁמוֹ Gn 2429, 1 S 11, &c., or וּשְׁמָהּ Gn 161, 2224, &c.); of a condition of body, Ju 17, and others.—Noun-clauses which begin with wāw and the predicate have a somewhat more independent character than those introduced by wāw and the subject[1] (Gn 191, &c.). The former, however, are also to be regarded as circumstantial clauses, in so far as they describe a state which is simultaneous with the principal action; thus Is 37 I will not be an healer, וּבְבֵיתִי אֵין לֶ֫חֶם while in my house is neither bread nor clothing; Is 66 (Am 77); 2 S 1318, 161. Cf. also the instances in §152l of וְאֵין followed by a participle, as וְאֵין מַצִּיל, &c.

 [156c2. Characteristic examples of circumstantial noun-clauses are Gn 128 and pitched his tent בֵּֽית־אֵל מִיָם וְהָעַי מִקֶּ֫דֶם with Bethel on the west and Ai on the east; Nu 2224, 2 S 1814 through the heart of Absalom, עוֹדֶנּ֫וּ חַי while he was yet alive; Jer 306, Ez 92 (cf. Ct 38), Na 38, Zc 145, 2 Ch 2310; with the predicate preceding, e.g. 1 S 2613, ψ 328.—In Gn 4129 a noun-clause serves to announce a state in the future.—We may also include here certain set phrases, as פָּנִים אֶל־פָּנִים face to face (prop. while face was turned towards face), Gn 3231, Ex 3311, Dt 3410,

  1. In Dt 3231 this form of sequence appears to be selected for another purpose, and indeed our enemies are judges thereof, with wāw emphatic; to take it as a circumstantial clause is too artificial.