Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/522

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its origin is obscure. Cf. the exhaustive discussion of Delitzsch and Wetzstein on Jb 3436, where this אבי appears to be used as a desiderative particle.—Sometimes when one case has been already discussed, another of the same character is added by means of אוֹ or, e.g. Ex 2136 אוֹ נוֹדַע וג׳ or (another possible case) it is known that, &c., i.e. but if it be known, &c., LXX ἐὰν δέ, Vulg. sin autem; cf. Lv 423, 28, 5:1, 25:49, 2 S 1813; with a following imperfect, Ez 1417f.—On the hypothetical use of אֲשֶׁר (which is interchangeable with כִּי in other senses also) Lv 422 (in verses 3 and 27 אִם), Dt 1127 (verse 28 אִם), Jos 421, see the Lexicon.

 [159dd]  2. The conditional sentence is frequently found in an abridged form, where the suppressed clauses can be easily supplied from the context; cf. Gn 139, 2449, 1 S 216 וְאִם־לֹא and if not, i.e. and if thou wilt not give it to me, then I take it (perfect according to §106n) by force; cf. 1 S 69. The use of וְיֵשׁ alone in Ju 613 is peculiar, as also וָיֵשׁ in 2 K 1015 (where read with the LXX וַיֹּא֫מֶר יֵהוּא וָיֵשׁ) in the sense of if it be so.—In 2 S 1326, 2 K 517 וָלֹא alone appears to be used in the sense of if really ... not, in each case with a following jussive equivalent to may there at least, &c. (cf. §143d); but perhaps with Matthes, ZAW. 1903, p. 122 ff., following Kuipers, we should read וְלוּ would that!—In 1 S 1313, Jb 313 the condition must be supplied from the preceding clause to complete the sentence introduced by כִּי עַתָּה, in Jb 3128 by כִּי, in 2 K 1319 by אָז.—The apodosis also appears sometimes in an abridged form (e.g. Gn 424, Is 432) or is entirely suppressed, e.g. Gn 3027, 3817, 5015 (see y above), Ex 3232, ψ 2713, Jb 385, where properly הַגֵּד must be supplied with כִּי תֵדָ֑ע as in verses 4 and 18; cf. §167a.—In ψ 84, instead of the apodosis I exclaim which we should expect, the exclamation itself follows.

 [159ee]  3. The absolute certainty with which a result is to be expected is frequently emphasized by the insertion of כִּי Is 79; כִּי אָזָ 2 S 227, 197, Jb 1115; or כִּי עַתָּה now verily, Nu 2229, 1 S 1430 after לוּ, Gn 3142, 4310 after לוּלֵי, Jb 86 after אִם. On this corroborative כִּי cf. such passages as Gn 1820, &c., and §148d. On כִּי אִם after an oath cf. 163 d.

 [159ff]  4. Sometimes the force of a hypothetical particle extends beyond the apodosis to a second conditional clause, as in the case of אִם Pr 912, Jb 1015, 166, 2223, and כִּי Is 432.

 [159gg]  5. In Ex 3320 a negative statement takes the place of a condition with a negative consequence, for a man doth not see me and live, instead of for if a man sees me, he does not live; cf. the similar passages, Dt 221, 4 thou shalt not see ... and hide thyself, instead of if thou seest ... thou shalt not hide thyself.

§160. Concessive Clauses.

 [160a]  Besides the use of the imperative in the sense of a concession, meant either seriously (§110a) or mockingly (§110f), and of concessive circumstantial clauses (§141e, §142d, and §156f), concessive clauses may be introduced—

(a) By a simple אִם if: thus Jb 915 with perfect, if (=though) I had been in the right; Is 118 and 10:22 with imperfect in reference to a contingent event.

 [160b]  (b) By גַּם כִּי yea though, Is 115 with imperfect; for which we find simply גַּם in Is 4915 with imperfect, yea, though these may forget, yet ...; on the other hand, with perfect, Jer 3625, ψ 959, Neh 61; finally כִּי גַם even if, though, Ec 414.