Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/98

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consonant cannot easily be sounded.[1] In such cases the preceding vowel is frequently lengthened (§27d), e.g. רֹב multitude, from רבב; עַם people, with a distinctive accent or after the article, עָם, from עמם; but e.g. גַּן garden, בַּת daughter, with the final consonant virtually sharpened. On the exceptions אַתְּ thou (fem.) and נָתַ֫תְּ thou (fem.) hast given Ez 1633, see §10k.

 [20m]  (b) Very frequently in certain consonants with Šewâ mobile, since the absence of a strong vowel causes the strengthening to be less noticeable. This occurs principally in the case of ו and י (on יְ and יֵּ after the article, see §35b; on יְּ after מַה־, §37b); and in the sonants מ‍,[2] נ‍ and ל; also in the sibilants, especially when a guttural follows (but note Is 629, מְאַסְפָיו, as ed. Mant. and Ginsb. correctly read, while Baer has מְאָֽסְ׳ with compensatory lengthening, and others even מְאָסְ׳; מִשְׁמַנֵּי Gn 2728, 39; מִשְׁלשׁ 38:24 for מִשְּׁ׳, הַֽשְׁלַבִּים 1 K 728; אֶֽשְֽׁקָה־ 1 K 1920 from נָשַׁק, הַֽשְׁפַתַּ֫יִם Ez 4043 and לַֽשְׁפַנִּים ψ 10418; מִשְׁתֵּים Jon 411, הַֽצְפַרְדְּעִים Ex 81 &c.);—and finally in the emphatic ק.[3]

Of the Begadkephath letters, ב occurs without Dageš in מִבְצִיר Ju 82; ג in מִגְבֽוּרָתָם Ez 3230; ד in נִדְחֵי Is 1112 56:8, ψ 1472 (not in Jer 4936), supposing that it is the Participle Niphʿal of נָדַח; lastly, ת in תִּתְצוּ Is 2210. Examples, עִוְרִים, וַיְהִי (so always the preformative יְ in the imperf. of verbs), מִלְמַ֫עְלָה, לַֽמְנַצֵּחַ, הִנְנִי, הַֽלֲלוּ, מִלְאוּ, כִּסְאִי, יִשְׂאוּ, יִקְחוּ, מַקְלוֹת, מִקְצֵה, &c. In correct MSS. the omission of the Dageš is indicated by the Rāphè stroke (§ 14) over the consonant. However, in these cases, we must assume at least a virtual strengthening of the consonant (Dageš forte implicitum, see §22c, end).

(c) In the Gutturals, see §22b.

 [20n]  Rem. 1. Contrary to rule the strengthening is omitted (especially in the later Books), owing to the lengthening of the preceding short vowel, generally Ḥireq (cf. mīle for mille), e.g. יְחִיתַ֑ן he makes them afraid, for יְחִתֵּן Hb 217 (where, however, it is perhaps more correct to suppose, with König, a formation on the analogy of verbs ע״וּ, and moreover to read יְחִיתֶ֫ךָ with the LXX), זִיקוֹת Is 5011 for זִקּוֹת.

 [20o]  2. Very doubtful are the instances in which compensation for the strengthening is supposed to be made by the insertion of a following נ‍. Thus for

  1. So in Latin fel (for fell), gen. fellis; mel, mellis; os, ossis. In Middle High German the doubling of consonants never takes place at the end of a word, but only in the middle (as in Old High German), e g. val (Fall), gen. valles; swam (Schwamm, &c., Grimm, Deutsche Gramm., 2nd ed., i. 383.
  2. Dageš forte is almost always omitted in מְ‍ when it is the prefix of the participle Piʿel or Puʿal, hence ψ 1043 הַֽמְקָרֶה who layeth the beams, but הַמְּקָרֶה the roof Ec 1018 (cf. הַמְּלָאכָה the work, &c.).
  3. According to some also in ט in תִּטְעִי Is 1710; but see Baer on the passage.