Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/339

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hand, with the perf., e.g. Jos 222. As after אָז, so also after טֶ֫רֶם, בְּטֶ֫רֶם, and עַד־ the imperf. may be used, according to the context, in the sense of our future, e.g. 2 K 29, Is 6524, Jb 1021; after עַד־ e.g. Is 2214. The imperf. is used in the sense of our present after טֶ֫רֶם in Ex 930, 107.

 [107d]  2. Driver (Tenses3, p. 35 f.) rightly lays stress upon the inherent distinction between the participle as expressing mere duration, and the imperfect as expressing progressive duration (in the present, past, or future). Thus the words וְנָהָר יׂצֵא Gn 210 represent the river of Paradise as going out of Eden in a continuous, uninterrupted stream, but יִפָּרֵד, which immediately follows, describes how the parting of its waters is always taking place afresh. In the same way יַֽעֲלֶה Gn 26 represents new mists as constantly arising, and יִמָלֵא Is 64 new clouds of smoke. Also those actions, &c., which might be regarded in themselves as single or even momentary, are, as it were, broken up by the imperfect into their component parts, and so pictured as gradually completing themselves. Hence תִּבְלָעֵ֫מוֹ Ex 1512 (after a perf. as in verse 14) represents the Egyptians, in a vivid, poetic description, as being swallowed up one after another, and יַבְחֵ֫נִי Nu 237 the leading on by stages, &c.

 [107e]  (b) To express actions, &c., which were repeated in the past, either at fixed intervals or occasionally (the modus rei repetitae), e.g. Jb 15 thus did (יַֽעֲשֶׂה) Job continually (after each occasion of his sons’ festivities); 4:3 f., 22:6 f., 23:11, 29:7, 9, 12 f., Gn 64, 292, 3038, 4231, 39 (I used to bear the loss of it), Ex 112, 1919, 337 ff. (יִקַּח used to take every time), 40:36 ff., Nu 917 f. 20 ff., 11:5, 9, Ju 64, 1410, 2125, 1 S 17, 222, 99, 1319, 185, 279, 2 S 122, 123, 1318, 1 K 525 (of tribute repeated year by year), 10:5, 13:33, 14:28, 2 K 48, 829, 1320, 2514, Jer 3623, ψ 425, 443, 7815, 40, 103:7, Est 214; even in a negative dependent clause, 1 K 1810.

 [107f2. In the sphere of present time, again

(a) To express actions, events, or states, which are continued for a shorter or longer time,[1] e.g. Gn 3715 מַה־תְּבַקֵּשׁ what seekest thou? 19:19 לֹא־אוּכַל I cannot; 24:50, 31:35, Is 113. Other examples are Gn 210, 2431, 1 S 18, 115, 1 K 37, ψ 22, and in the prophetic formula יֹאמַר יְהֹוָה saith the Lord, Is 111, 18, &c., cf. 40:1. So especially to express facts known by experience, which occur at all times, and consequently hold good at any moment, e.g. Pr 1520 a wise son maketh a glad father; hence especially frequent in Job and Proverbs. In an interrogative sentence, e.g. Jb 417 is mortal man just before God? In a negative sentence, Jb 418, &c.

 [107g]  (b) To express actions, &c., which may be repeated at any time, including therefore the present, or are customarily repeated on a given occasion (cf. above, e), e.g. Dt 144 as bees do (are accustomed to

  1. It is not always possible to carry out with certainty the distinction between continued and repeated actions. Some of the examples given under f might equally be referred to g.