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Theophrastus. In opposition to the credulity of most of his sect, he scouted the predictions of astrologers, and exercised in everything a sound judgment, no less than an eloquence which fitted him to recommend the doctrines he professed to so practical a people as the Romans. This philosophy was in itself peculiarly adapted to their genius, whether in their greatness or in their decline. In the palmy days of the republic it armed them with the fortitude of power; in the tragic gloom and sinking fortunes of the empire it upheld them with the fortitude of despair. It is with the spring-time of Roman stoicism that the name of Panætius is associated. None of his writings have come down to us, but how highly they were esteemed in their day is proved by the fact that Cicero thought it not beneath him to copy his own treatise De Officiis from one of the works of Panætius. Panætius died at Athens about 112 b. c.—J. F. F.

PANCIROLI, Guido, lawyer, born in Reggio of honourable parentage, 17th April, 1623; died in Padua, May, 1599. He studied law first with his father, next in Ferrara, finally in Padua under the celebrated Alciati. In 1547, whilst still a student, Panciroli was elected to a professorship in the Paduan university; and he continued a member of that body until, disappointed of preferment, he transferred his services to the university of Turin, and enjoyed honours and emoluments under two successive dukes of Savoy. The climate, however, proving prejudicial to his eyesight, he in 1582 quitted Turin; and on the invitation of Venice returned to Padua, accepted the professorship he had formerly desired, and fulfilled its functions to the end of his days, although Popes Gregory XIV. and Clement VIII. would gladly have secured his presence in Rome. Amongst his other legal and antiquarian writings are "De claris legum Interpretibus," published posthumously in Venice, 1637; and "Rerum Memorabilium Lib. ii.," a work on the lost inventions of the ancients, &c.—C. G. R.

PANCKOUCKE, Charles Joseph, son of a bookseller at Lille, was born in that city 26th November, 1736. In his twenty-eighth year he established himself in business at Paris. In 1775 he went to Ferney, submitting to Voltaire the plan of a collected edition of his works, which is known as that of Kehl, and for which, through the intervention of Beaumarchais, he obtained the patronage of the Empress Catherine. Panckoucke subsequently conceived the plan, and commenced the publication, of the Encyclopédie Méthodique. Long known as the proprietor of the Mercure and other journals, he has also the credit, such as it is, of establishing the Moniteur. He died 19th December, 1798. Amongst his own writings may be mentioned, "De l'homme et de la réproduction des differents individus," 1761; a free translation of Lucretius; a discourse on pleasure and pain; and discourses on the beautiful.—His son, Charles Louis Fleury Panckoucke, born at Paris 26th December, 1780, continued his father's business, and inherited his literary tastes. His "Dictionnaire des Sciences Médicales," a work long pursued under great difficulties, brought him ultimately both credit and pecuniary gain. Another important work which is due to his enterprise and energy, is the "Victoires et Conquêtes." In 1825 he published a magnificent edition of Tacitus, and shortly afterwards was named a chevalier of the legion of honour. After a journey to Scotland he was elected a member of the Edinburgh Antiquarian Societies, and published an illustrated work on the isle of Staffa. Always an earnest and active student, he was busily engaged upon a translation of Ariosto shortly previous to his death, which occurred on the 11th July, 1844.—W. J. P.

PANICALE, Masolino da, the son of a painter of the name of Christoforo di Fino, was one of the first of the Renaissance artists to paint men and things somewhat as they really appear, and to properly treat light and shade, and he has further the distinction of having been the reputed master of Masaccio. Masolino's time was from 1383 to about 1440; he was the scholar of Lorenzo Ghiberti and of Gherardo Starnina, and first distinguished himself by some excellent frescoes in the Brancacci chapel of St. Peter in the church of the Carmine at Florence, in 1423-24, when he was interrupted by an invitation to Hungary, whither he went about 1425, and the Carmine frescoes were intrusted to Masaccio, his pupil. Ten years later we find him at work in the north of Italy, at Castiglione d'Olona, near Como, where are some lately recovered frescoes by him signed "Masolinus de Florentia pinxit," and in the baptistery of the collegiate church there are some others similar, not signed, but dated 1435. The frescoes of Masohno in the Brancacci chapel are three—"The Preaching of St. Peter;" the same saint healing the cripple by the Beautiful gate, and raising Tabitha; and "Adam and Eve under the Apple Tree, or the Fall." They are engraved in the series of Florentine frescoes by Lasinio, and are now in process of publication in colours by the Arundel Society.—(Vasari, ed. Le Monnier, volume iii., and the National Gallery Catalogue, ed. 35, 1862, art. Masaccio)— R. N. W.

PANIN, Nikita Ivanovitch, Count, a Russian statesman, descended from the Luccese family of Pagnini, was born in 1718. He began his career in the imperial guard of the Empress Elizabeth, but soon found employment more congenial to his astute spirit in an embassy, first to Denmark, and afterwards to Sweden. In the plot of 1762 he supported Catherine against her husband Peter III., and was subsequently appointed tutor to the Grand Duke Paul, to which office was added the high employ of chancellor of the empire and minister of foreign affairs. He died in 1783. His brother. General Count Peter Panin, commanded the Russian army in the war with Turkey, and in the suppression of Pugatscheff's rebellion.—R. H.

PANINI, a Sanscrit grammarian of such reputation that he is held to have been inspired. His Vyakarana, or grammar, is divided into eight books, and comprises three thousand nine hundred and ninety-six rules. It is called "Siddhanta Caumudi." The style is compressed and artificial, so that it requires years of patient study. Max Muller says it must have required ages of observation and collection, before its plan could have been conceived and carried out by one individual. It is known that Panini was not the author of all the Sutras; he borrowed from others, and others have added to him. In the Vedangas, grammar is represented by the work of Panini, who is a mythical character, and regarded by some as having had two existences. He is named by the Chinese traveller Hiouensthang, and is placed by Professor Weber at about A.D. 140, which is probably too late. Bothlingk has assigned him to 350 b. c.—B. H. C.

PANMURE, Fox Maule, second baron, and eleventh earl of Dalhousie, was born in 1801, and succeeded to the title and family estates on the death of his father in 1852. He was educated at the Charter-house, entered the army as an ensign in the 79th Highlanders, and after serving for several years in Canada on the staff of his uncle, the earl of Dalhousie, retired in 1831 with the rank of captain. He commenced his political career in 1835, when, after a very keen contest, he was elected member for the county of Perth, and subsequently represented the Elgin burghs and the city of Perth. On the return of the Melbourne ministry to office, Mr. Maule was made under secretary for the home department. In 1841 he held for a short period the office of vice-president of the board of trade. In 1842 Mr. Maule was elected lord rector of the university of Glasgow, and on the downfall of Sir Robert Peel's ministry in 1846, he became secretary at war, with a seat in the cabinet. In February, 1852, he exchanged this office for the presidency of the board of control. The dissolution of the Russell ministry, however, soon followed, and on the death of his father in the course of the same year he was elevated to the house of lords. Lord Panmure had no seat in the coalition cabinet under the earl of Aberdeen; but when it fell to pieces during the struggle with Russia, and Lord Palmerston became premier, he returned to his former office of secretary at war, the duties of which he discharged with great ability and untiring industry until the overthrow of Lord Palmerston's administration in 1858. Lord Panmure takes a deep interest in the ecclesiastical affairs of Scotland, and is an active and influential office-bearer of the Free Church. He was appointed lord-lieutenant of Forfarshire in 1849, keeper of the privy seal of Scotland and K.T. in 1853, and succeeded to the title of earl of Dalhousie on the death of his cousin, the marquis of Dalhousie, in 1861.—J. T.

PANOFKA, Theodor, a German archaeologist, was born at Breslau, 25th February, 1801. After completing his studies at Berlin, he travelled in Italy, then lived for some time at Paris, and undertook a second journey to Italy, where he assisted in the foundation of the Archæological Institute at Rome, of which he became secretary. In 1844 he obtained the chair of archæology at Berlin, where he died 20th June, 1858. Among his numerous works, the "Musée Blacas;" "Cabinet du Comte Pourtalès;" "Recherches sur les noms des Vases Grecs;" and "Neapel's Antiken," deserve to be noticed; the rest are mostly archæological monographs of small compass.—K. E.

PANORMITA. See Beccadelli.