(a) Proper names of countries and cities, as בָּבֶל Babylon, צִדוֹן Sidon. Words like מוֹאָב Moab, &c., when used as name of the people, are usually mas., but fem. when the name of the country, and also when used for the population as a collective personified (§ 116, R. 5). So the word בַּת daughter of inhabitants or people, as בַּת בָּבֶל, בּת צִיּוֹן.
(b) Common names of definite places, as districts, quarters of the earth, &c., as עִיר city, תֵּבֵל the world, כִּכָּר the circle (of the Jordan), שְׁאוֹל hades (mas. as personified Is. 14:9), תֵּימָן the south, צָפוֹן north, Is. 43:6. But there are exceptions.
(c) The names of instruments, utensils used by man, and members of the body, particularly such as are double, as חֶרֶב sword, כּוֹס cup, נַעַל shoe; עַיִן eye, אֹזֶן ear, רֶגֶל foot, &c. So of animals, קֶרֶן horn. Again there are exceptions, as אַף nose, nostril, עֹרֶף neck, פֶּה mouth.
(d) The names of the elements, natural powers and unseen forces, as אֵשׁ fire, נֶפֶשׁ soul, רוּחַ wind, spirit (usually, שֶׁמֶשׁ the sun (usually), but יָרֵחַ moon, is mas.
§ 14. Some other classes of nouns are fem. 1. Abstract nouns, as אֱמֶת truth, גְּבוּרָה strength, צְדָקָה righteousness, though there is often also a mas. form, as עֵזֶר and עֶזְרָה help, נָקָם and נְקָמָה vengeance. So adj. and ptcp. used nominally, as we should say as neuters, as רָעָה evil (physical), Hos. 5:9 נֶֽאֱמָנָה a sure thing, Am. 3:10 נְכֹחָה what is straightforward, Mic. 3:9 הַיְשָׁרָה. And often in the plur. Gen. 42:7 קָשׁוֹת harsh things, harshly, Is. 32:4, 8 צָחוֹת clear things, plainly, נְדִיבוֹת liberal things. Zeph. 3:4. The mas. plur. is sometimes used in poetry, Ps. 16:6, 11, Pr. 8:6 נְגִידִים. Cf. Is. 26:10; 28:22; 30:10; 42:9; 43:18; 48:6; 58:11; 59:9; 64:2, Nu. 22:18; 24:13, Jos. 2:23; 3:5, 2 S. 2:26, 2 K. 8:4; 25:28.
2. Collectives, which are often fem. of ptcp., as אֹֽרְחָה