Page:Introductory Hebrew Grammar- Hebrew Syntax (1902).djvu/34

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a caravan (from אֹרֵחַ a traveller), גּוֹלָה captivity (גּוֹנּלה one going captive), ישֶׁבֶת inhabitants, Is. 12:6, אֹיֶבֶת enemy (of a people), דַּלָּה the lower classes, 2 K. 24:14, Jer. 40:7, plur. Jer. 52:15, 16. Cf. Mic. 4:6, Zeph. 3:19, Ez. 34:4.

3. The fem., however, sometimes is used as nomen unitatis when the mas. is collect., as אֳנִי fleet, 1 K. 9:26, אֳנִיָּה a ship, Jon. 1:3, 4; שֵׂעָר the hair, 2 S. 14:26, שַֽׂעֲרָה a hair, Jud. 20:16, 1 K. 1:52, but probably coll. Job 4:15; שִׁירָה a song, Is. 5:1, mas. generally coll. 1 K. 5:12, though also singular, e.g. Is. 26:1. So מֶרְכָּבָה a chariot, Gen. 41:43 with מֶרְכָּב 1 K. 5:6. Perhaps פִּשְׁתָּה wick, Is. 42:3; 43:17, cf. Hos. 2:7, 11, flax.

Rem. 1. Sometimes when a parallel is seen in lifeless things to some organ or feature of living creatures the fem. is used, as יָרֵךְ the thigh, loins (sing. and plur.), יֶרְכָתַיִם the sides, furthest back parts, of a locality; מֵצַח forehead, front, מִצְחָה shin-front, greave. And in a wider way, יוֹנֵק suckling, child, יוֹנֶקֶת sucker, shoot. So such words as horns, feet when transferred to things are used in plur. with fem. termination.

Rem. 2. The fem. is used where other languages would use the neut., e.g. זֹאת this, שְׁתֵּי אֵלֶּה these two things, Is. 47:9; אַהַת מֵהֵנָּה one of these things, 1 Chr. 21:10; particularly in ref. to something previously mentioned, Is. 22:11; 37:26; 41:20; 43:13; 46:11; 47:7; 48:16; 60:22. See § 109, R. 2. Occasionally the plur. seems used as a neut., where fem. might have stood, Job 22:21 בהם = בהּ thereby. Ez. 33:18, Is. 30:6. The passages Is. 38:16; 64:4 are obscure.

NUMBER

§ 15. Of the three numbers the dual is now little used. On its use cf. Gr. § 16, R. a.

The plur. of compound expressions like בֵּית אָב a father-house or clan, גִּבּוֹר הַיִל a man of valour (wealth), is formed variously.