Page:Introductory Hebrew Grammar- Hebrew Syntax (1902).djvu/35

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1. בֵּית אָבוֹת plur. of second. 1 S. 31:9 בֵּית עֲצַבֵּיהֶם their idol temples. 1 K. 12:31, 2 K. 17:29, 32, Mic. 2:9, Dan. 11:15, Ps. 120:1, &c. שִׁיר הַמַּֽעֲלוֹת?

2. גִּבּוֹרֵי חַיִל plur. of first. Jer. 8:14 עָרֵי הַמִּבְצָר fenced cities, Is. 56:6 בְּנֵי הַנֵּכָר strangers, cf. v. 3:1 S. 22:7, 1 Chr. 5:24; 7:2, 9, 2 Chr. 8:5; 14:5.

3. גִּבּוֹרֵי חֲיָלִים plur. of both. Gen. 42:35 צְרֹרוֹת כַּסְפֵּיהֶם their bundles of money. 1 K. 13:32 בָּתֵּי הַבָּמוֹת. 1 K. 15:20, 2 K. 9:1 (cf. sing. Am. 7:14); 23:19; 25:23, 26, Is. 42:22, Jer. 5:17; 40:7, Mic. 1:16, 1 Chr. 5:24; 7:5, 7, 11, 40. Cf. Neh. 10:37.

§ 16. Many words are used only in plur. (a) Such words as express the idea of something composed of parts, e.g. of several features, as פָּנֵים face, צַוָּארִים neck (also sing.), or of tracts of space or time, שָׁמַיִם heaven, מַיִם water, עֲבָרִים region on the other side, Is. 7:20; חַיִּים life, עוֹלָמִים eternity, Is. 45:17, נְצָחִים id., נְעוּרִים time of youth, זְקֻנִים time of old age, &c. Comp. סְפָרִים a letter (also sing.), 2 K. 20:12, Jer. 29:25.

(b) Abstract nouns. As סַנְוֵרִים blindness, בְּתוּלִים virginity, מֵישָׁרִים uprightness, כִּפֻּרִים atonement, זְנוּנִים whoredom, שִׁלֻּמִים requital, תַּהְפֻּכוֹת perversity, &c. The plur. in this case may express the idea of a combination of the elements or characteristics composing the thing, or of the acts realising it.

(c) The plur. of eminence or excellence (majesty) also expresses an intensification of the idea of the sing.; e.g. אֱלֹהִים God, and analogically קְדוֹשִׁים Holy One, Hos. 12:1, Pr. 30:3, עֶלְיוֹנִים Most High, Dan. 7:18; so ptcp. referring to God, Is. 54:5, Ps. 149:2, Job 35:10. Similar words are אֲדֹנִים lord, master, בְּעָלִים owner, cf. Is. 10:15, Pr. 10:26. So תְּרָפִים Teraphim, even of one image. On the consn. of such plur. cf. § 31, and § 116, R. 4.