THE RELATIVE PRONOUN 97
LESSON XXXVIII THE RELATIVE PRONOUN AND THE INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN . Sentences are simple^ compound, or complex. a. A simple sentence is a sentence containing but one statement, that is, one subject and one predicate : The Romans approached the town. b. A compound sentence is a sentence containing two or more independ- ent statements : The Romans approached the town and | the enemy fled. Note. An independent statement is one that can stand alone ; it does not depend upon another statement. c. A complex sentence is a sentence containing one independent state- ment and one or more dependent statements: When the Romans approcuhed the town the enemy fled. Note. A dependent or subordinate statement is one that depends on or qualifies another statement ; thus the enemy fled is independent, and when the Romans approached the town is dependent or subordinate. d. The separate statements in a compound or complex sentence are called clauses. In a complex sentence the independent statement is called the main clause and the dependent statement the subordinate clause. . Examine the complex sentence The Romans killed the men who were taken Here are two clauses : a. The main clause, The Romans killed the nun b. The subordinate clause, who were taken The word who is a pronoun, for it takes the place of the noun men. It also connects the subordinate clause who were taken with the noun men. Hence the clause is an adjective clause. A pronoun that connects an adjective clause with a substantive is called a relative pro- noun, and the substantive for which the relative pronoun stands is called its antecedent. The relative pronouns in English are who, whose, whom, which, what, that.