io8 THE THIRD DECLENSION • /-STEMS
LESSON XLIII THE THIRD DECLENSION • /-STEMS . To decline a noun of the third declension correctly we must know whether or not it is an i-stem. Nouns with i-stems are
. Masculines and f eminines :
a. Nouns in -es and -is with the same number of syllables in the genitive as in the nominative. Thus caedes, caedis, is an i-stem, but miles, militis, is a consonant stem. b. Nouns in -ns and -rs. c. Nouns of one syllable in -s or -x preceded by a consonant . Neuters in -e, -al, and -ar. . The declension of i-stems is nearly the same as that of con- sonant stems. Note the following differences : a. Masculines and feminines have -ium in the genitive plural and -is or -es in the accusative plural. b. Neuters have -i in the ablative singular, and an -1- in every form of. the plural. . Masculine and Feminine /-Stems. Masculine and feminine i- stems are declined as follows : caedes, f., hostis, m. , urbs, f., cliens, m., slaughter enemy city Tetainer Stems caedi- hosti- urbi- clienti- Bases caed- host- urb- SlNGULAR client- TERMINATIONS M. AND F. Norn. caedes hostis urbs cliens ^ -s, -is, <7/--es Gen. caedis hostis urbis clientis -is Dat. caedi hosti urbi clienti -i Ace. caedem hostem urbem clientem -em (-im) AbL caede hoste urbe clientc -«(-i)
Observe that the vowel before -ns is long, but that it is shortened before
-nt. Cf. §12.2,3.