INDEFINITE PRONOUNS 131
. Learn the declension and meaning of the following indefinites : Neut. quid, some one, any one (substantive) quod, some, any (adjective), § 483 aliquid, some one, any one (substan- tive), § 487 aliquod, some, any (adjective), § 487 quoddam, quiddam, a certain, a certain one, § 485 quicquam or quidquam (no plural), any one (at all) (substantive), § 486 qnidque, each one, every one (substan- tive), § 484 quodque, each^ every (adjectiveX § 484 Masc. I'lM. quis qui qua or quae aliquis aliqui aliqua quidam quaedam quisquam quisque quisque quaeque Note, The meanings of the neuters, something, etc., are easily inferred from the masculine and feminine. a. In the masculine and neuter singular of the indefinites, quis-forms and quid-forms are mostly used as substantives, qui-forms and quod-forms as adjectives. b. The indefinites quis and qui never stand first in a clause, and are rare excepting after si, nisi, ne, num (as, si quis, if any one ; si quid, if anything; nisi quis, unless some one). Generally aliquis and aliqui are used instead. c. Tfie forms qua and aliqua are both feminine nominative singular and neuter nominative plural of the indefinite adjectives qui and aliqui respectively. How do these differ from the corresponding forms of the relative qui? </. Observe that quidam (qui + -dam) is declined like qui, except that in the accusative singular and genitive plural m of qui becomes n (cf. § 287. a) : quendam, quandam, qudnmdam, quanmdam ; also that the neuter has quid- dam (substantive) and quoddam (adjective) in the nominative and accusative singular. Quidam is the least indefinite of the indefinite pronouns, and implies that you could name the person or thing referred to if you cared to do so. e. Quisquam and quisque (substantive) are declined like quia. f Quisquam, any one (quicquam or quidquam, anything), is always used substantively and chiefly in negative sentences. The corresponding adjective any is Qlhis, -a, -urn (§ 108).