THE GERUND AND GERUNDIVE 173
. Cum Helvetii bell6 clarissimi essent, Caesar iter per provinciam dare recusavit. 5. Legatus cum haec audivisset, Caesarem certio- rem fecit. 6. Cum principes inter se obsides darent, Roman! bellum paraverunt. 7. Caesar, cum id nuntiatum esset, maturat ab urbe pro- ficisci. 8. Ne virtute quidem Galli erant pares Germanis. 9. Caesar neque corpore neque animo infirmus erat. 10. I Hud bellum tum incepit cum Caesar fuit c6nsul. Observe in each case what mood follows cum, and try to give the reasons for its use. In the third sentence the cum clause is concessive, in the fourth and sixth causal. II. I. That battle was fought at the time when (tum cum) I was at Rome. 2. Though the horsemen were few in number, nevertheless they did not retreat. 3. When the camp had been sufficiently forti- fied, the enemy returned home. 4. Since the tribes are giving hostages to each other, we shall inform Caesar. 5. The Gauls and the Germans are very unlike in language and laws. LESSON LXXI VOCABULARY REVIEW • THE GERUND AND GERUNDIVE THE PREDICATE GENITIVE . Review the word lists in §§ 510, 511. . The Gerund. Suppose we had to translate the sentence By overcoming the Gauls Casar won great glory We can see that overcoming here is a verbal noun corresponding to the English infinitive in -ing^ and that the thought calls for the abla- tive of means. To translate this by the Latin infinitive would be impossible, because the infinitive is indeclinable and therefore has no ablative case form. Latin, however, has another verbal noun of cor- responding meaning, called the gerund, declined as a neuter of the second declension in ^& genitive, dative, accusative^ and ablative singular^ and thus supplying the cases that the infinitive lacks.* Hence, to
- Sometimes, however, the infinitive is used as an accusative.