174 THE GERUND AND GERUNDIVE
decline in Latin the verbal noun overcoming^ we should use the infinitive for the nominative and the gerund for the other cases, as follows: JVom. Gen. Dat. Ace. Abl. f overcomin£[ superare-^ ^ ^ mnfinitive X^to overcome] superandi, of overcoming ^ sw^Qxa.n6.0j for overco7nijig , . Y Gerund superandum, overcoming superando, by overcoming J Like the infinitive, the gerund governs the same case as the verb from which it is derived. So the sentence given above becomes in Latin Superando Gallos Caesar magnam gloriam reportavit . The gerund ^ is formed by adding -ndi, -ndo, -ndum, -nd5, to the present stem, which is shortened or otherwise changed, as shown below : Paradigm of the Gerund CONJ. I amandi amando amandum amandd CONJ. II monendi monendo monendum monendo CONJ. Ill regendi regendo regendum regendo capiendi capiend5 capiendum capiendo CONJ. IV audiendi audiend5 audiendum audiendo Give the gerund of euro, deleo, sumo, iacio, venio. Deponent verbs have the gerund of the active voice (see § 493). Give Gen. Dat. Ace. Abl. a. b. the gerund of conor, vereor, sequor, patior, partior. . The Gerundive. The gerundive is the name given to the future passive participle (§ 374.^) when the participle approaches the mean- ing of a verbal noun and is translated like a gerund. It is the adjective corresponding to the gerund. For example, to translate the plan of waging war, we may use the gerund with its direct object and say consilium gerendi bellum ; or we may use the gerundive and say con- silium belli gerendi, which means, literally, the plan of the war to be waged, but which came to have the same force as the gerund with its object, and was even preferred to it.
The gerund is the neuter singular of the future passive participle used
as a noun, and has the same formation. (Cf. § 374.0'.)