- 2. A syllable is long,
- a. If it contains a long vowel or a diphthong, as cū'-rō, poe'-nae, aes-tā'-te.
- b. If it ends in a consonant which is followed by another consonant, as cor'-pus, mag'-nus.
- Note. The vowel in a long syllable may be either long or short, and should be pronounced accordingly. Thus in ter'-ra, in'-ter, the first syllable is long, but the vowel in each case is short and should be given the short sound. In words like saxum the first syllable is long because x has the value of two consonants (cs or gs).
- 3. In determining quantity h is not counted a consonant.
- Note. Give about twice as much time to the long syllables as to the short ones. It takes about as long to pronounce a short vowel plus a consonant as it does to pronounce a long vowel or a diphthong, and so these quantities are considered equally long. For example, it takes about as long to say cǔr'-rō as it does cū'-rō, and so each of these first syllables is long. Compare mǒr-lis and mō'-lis, a-mis'-sī and ā-mā'-sī.
14. Words of two syllables are accented on the first, as mēn'-sa, Cae'-sar.
15. Words of more than two syllables are accented on the penult if the penult is long. If the penult is short, accent the antepenult. Thus mo-nē'-mus, re'-gi-tur, a-gri'-co-la, a-man'-dus.
Note. Observe that the position of the accent is determined by the length of the syllable and not by the length of the vowel in the syllable. (Cf.§ 13.2, Note.)
16. Certain little words called enclit'ics which have no separate existence, are added to and pronounced with a preceding word. The most common are que, and; -ve, or; and -ne, the question sign. The syllable before an enclitic takes the accent, regardless of its quantity. Thus populus'que, dea'que, rēgna've, audit 'ne.
- Enclitic means leaning back and that is, as you see, just what these little words do. They cannot stand alone and so they lean back for support upon the preceding word.