Railway Property, its Conditions and Prospects/' 1849; "Life of George Stephenson," of which the fifth edition appeared in 1858 ; *• Self - Selp ; with illustrations of Character and Conduct," I860; "Workmen's Earnings, Strikes, and W^es," 1861 ; " Lives of Engineers, with an account of their Works," 1862 ; " In- dustrial Biography," 1863: "Lives of Boulton and Watt," 1865; "The Huguenots : their Settlements, Churches, and Industries in Eng- land and Ireland," 3rd edit., 1869;
- • Character," a companion volume
to " Self-Help," 1871 ; "The Hugue- nots in Prance after the Eevocation of the Edict of Nantes : with a Visit to the Country of the Vaudois," 1874 i " George Moore, Merchant and Philanthropist," 1878: "Life of Robert Dick (Baker of Thurso), Geologist and Botanist," 1878; " Duty, with illustrations of Courage, Patience, and Endurance," 1880 ; he also edited the Autobiography of Mr. James Nasmyth, 1883. He has been a constant contributor to the Quarterly Review and other periodi- cals.
SMITH, Benjamin Leioh, was bom March 12, 1828, and educated at Jesus College, Cambridge, where he graduated as a Wrangler in 1852. He was called to the Bar by the InnerTempleinl856. Mr. Smith has made five voyages to the Arctic regions. He visited them first in 1871, in the Samson, when he sailed to the north-east of Spitzbergen; reached latitude SV 24", and added greatly to the land known in that direction ; secondly, in 1872, in the Samson, to the north of Spitzbergen ; thirdly, in 1873, with the Diana steamer and Samson, again to Spitz- bergen, when he relieved the Swedish Expedition, for which he received the Order of the North Star from the King of Sweden. In these three voyages he took deep-sea tempera- tures, which added much to the knowledge of the Gulf Stream, and established the fact of warm imder- urrents flowing beneath siurface-
water of a much lower temperature. In 1880 he built the steamer Eira, and again went north. After at- tempting to reach the east coast of Greenland, and to pass to the north- east of Spitzbergen, he returned to the south of Spitzbergen ; and steam- ing east, and then north, through much ice, reached Franz Josef Land, on Aug. 14 ; and then, going to the west, he discovered many islands, and over 200 miles of new coast line. In 1881 he again started in the Eira for Franz Josef Land, which he reached on July 24, but unfortii- nately the Eira was crushed in the ice on Aug. 21, and sank before many stores were saved. The crew built a hut of turf and stones, where they wintered, living mostly on bears and walrus. On June 21, 1882, they left in four boats, and reached Nova Zembla on Aug. 2. The next day they fell in with the Willem Barents and tlie Hope, which had been sent to their relief, and they arrived at Aberdeen on board the Hope on Aug. 20. Mr. Smith received a Gold Medal of the Paris Geographical Society in 1880; ;ind a Gold Medal of the Royal Geo- graphical Society in 1881.
SMITH, Charles Eoach,F.S.A.. bom at Landguard Manor, in the Isle of Wight, early in the century, has written "Collectanea Antiqua," 6 vols., 1848-66; "The Antiquities of Richborough, Reculver, and Lymne,' 1850, with supplements on Lymne and Pevensey, 1852-8 ; " H- lustrations of Roman London," a work based on the author's personal researches made during his resi- dence in the City of London, when he formed the collection of local antiquities described in his " Illus- trated Catalogue of the Museum of London Antiquities," 1864. This collection was transferred to the British Museum in 1856. Mr. Roach Smith's earliest antiquarian papers were printed in the " Archaeologia ; " and he contributed to the earlier volumes of the British Archseologi- I cal Association, and to the QentlC'