the Eoyal Society in 1871 ; received the honorary degree of LL.D., from the University of St. Andrews in IS73, and of D.C.L. from the Univer- sity of Oxford in 1875. In March, lSvS3, he was appointed Keeper of the Oxford University Museum. Later in the same year (Oct.) he was appointed to a readership in anthropology, and the degree of M.A. was conferred upon him (Nov. 20) by decree of the House of Con- vocation. Mr. Tylor is President of the Anthropological Society. He is the author of "Anahuac, or Mexico and the Mexicans/* 1861 ; "Researches into the History of Mankind/' 1865 ; and " Primitive Culture: Researches into the De- velopment of Mythology, Philoso- phy, Religion, Art, and Custom," 2 vols., 1871. His latest work is an educational handbook of the Science of Man, "Anthropology, an Intro- duction to the Study of Man and Civilization," 1881.
TYNDALL, John, LL.D., F.R.S., was born about 1820, in the village of Leighlin-bridge, near Carlow, m Ireland. His parents were in very humble circumstances, but they gave him the best education in their power, and sent him to a school where he acquired a sound knowledge of mathematics. At the age of nineteen he joined in the capacity of *' civil assistant " a division of the Ordnance Survey which was stationed in his native town. In 1841 he was engaged by a firm in Manchester, and lor about three years he was employed in engineering operations in connec- tion with railways. In 1847 he ac- cepted an appointment as teacher in Queenwood College, in Hamp- shire, a new institution, devoted partly to a junior school and partly to the preliminary technical educa- tion of agriculturists and engineers. Here he became acquainted with Mr. (now Dr.) Frankland, who was resident chemist to the College, and here he commenced those ori- ginal investigations which have
placed him in the foremost rank among the explorers of science. In 1818 the two friends quitted Eng- land together and repaired to the University of Marburg, in Hesse- Cassel, where they studied under Bunsen and other eminent pro- fessors. Afterwards Mr. TyndaD prosecuted his researches in the laboratory of Magnus, at Berlin. He conducted investigations on the phenomena of diamagnetism, and on the polarity of the diamagnetic force, including researches on the magneto-optic properties of crystals, and the relation of magnetism and diamagnetism to molecular arrange- ment. He has recently published a volume on these subjects. In 1853, having been previously elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, he was chosen Professor of Natural Philosophy in the Royal Institution of Great Britain, and succeeded the celebrated Faraday as Superinten- dent. The publication of an essay on the cleavage of slate rocks was the proximate cause of his joining his friend Professor Huxley in a visit to the glaciers of Switzerland in 1856 ; and they afterwards pnb- lished a joint paper on the strac- ture and motion of glaciers. He returned to Switzerland, in 1857, 1858, and 1859, and pursued his investigations, reaching Chamouni on Christmas night, 1859, through deep snow, and two days afterwards succeeded in attaining the Mon- tanvert, where he remained nearly three days, for the most part amid blinding snow, and determined the winter motion of the Mer de Glace. In 1859 he commenced his researches on Radiant Heat, which disclosed relations previotisly unthought of between this agent and the gaaeous form of matter. Numerous memoirs published in the " Philosophical Transactions," are devoted to this subject. Mr. TyndaU is a Rumford Medallist of the Royal Society, and a member of various foreign scien- tific societies ; he was made LL.D. of Cambridge in 1855^ and LL.D. of