that may combine every important requisite. He was created a baronet in Oct. 1869, in which year he in- stituted the "Whitworth Scholar- ships," consisting of thirty scholar- ships of jeiOO a year each, tenable for two or three years, for the encouragement of mechanical and engineering science. Sir Joseph Whitworth is the author of " Mis- cellaneous Papers on Practical Subjects; Gims and Steel," 1873. The University of Edinburgh con- ferred on him the honorary degree of LL.D. in 1878.
WHYMPER, Edward, artist, author, and traveller, second son of the well-known engraver and water-colour painter, was born in London, April 27, 18 W), and edu- cated at Clarendon House School, and under private tuition. He was trained as a draughtsman on wood, but preferring active to sedentary employment, commenced a series of journeys which even- tually changed the course of his life. In 18G1 he ascended Mont Pelvoux (then reputed to be the highest mountain in France), and discovered from its summit another mountain 500 feet higher — the Pointe des ficrins — which is the loftiest of the French Alps, and was subsequently ascended by Mr. Whymper in 1804. Between the years 18G1-5, in a series of expedi- tions remarkable for boldness and success, he ascended one peak after another of moimtains till then re- puted to b« inaccessible. These expeditions culminated in the as- cent of the Matterhom (14,780 feet), July 11', 1805, on which occasion his companions, the Rev. Charles Hudson, Mr. Hadow, and Lord Francis Douglas, and one of the guides, lost their lives. In 18G7 he travelled in N. W. Greenland with the intention of exploring its fossiliferous deposits, and, if pos- sible, of penetrating into its in- terior. This journey was charac- terised by Sir Roderick Murchison as *• truly the ne plus ultra of
British geographical adventure on the part of an individual!" No accoimt of it has been pubUshed, although upon it Mr. Whymper obtained cones of Magnolia, and the fruits of other trees, which de- monstrated the former existence of luxiiriant vegetation in these high northern latitudes. This fine collec- tion of fossil plants was described by Professor Heer in the Transactions of the Royal Society in 1869, and ^ the first set was secured for the British Museum, where a selection is now exhibited. In 1871 Mr. Whymper published an account of his Alpine journeys, under the title " Scrambles amongst the Alps in the Years 1860-69," London, 1871. In recognition of the value of this work, its author received from the King of Italy the decoration of Chevalier of the Order of SS. Mau- rice and Lazarus. In May, 1872, he again left Copenhagen for Korth Greenland, and spent the season among the moimtains, returning on Nov. 9 to Denmark, bringing back from this his second exploring jour- ney in Greenland, rich collections, among them fine specimens of fossil wood. In the years 1879-80, Mr. Whymper travelled in the Republic of Ecuador, exploring, ascending, and measuring the Great Andes on and near the Equator. On this journey he made the first ascents of Chimborazo (20,517 feet), Sincho- lagua, Antisana, Cayambe and Co- tocachi, and several others. Large zoological and other collections were made, which are now in course of description.
WILBERFORCE, The Right Rev. Ebnest Roland, D.D., Bishop of Newcastle, is the third son of the late Right Rev. Samuel Wilber- f orce, successively Bishop of Oxford and of Winchester, by Emily, elder daughter and heiress of the late Rev. John Sargent, of Lavington House, near Petworth, Sussex. He was born at Brigstone, or Brix- ton, in the Isle of Wight, Jan. 22, 1810 J and educated at Exeter Col-