of the concluding volume of the "English Flora" (1836), as well as of articles "On the Diseases of Plants," in the "Encyclopædia of Agriculture;" a series of papers on Vegetable Pathology, in the Gardeners' Chronicle; an introduction to "Cryptogamic Botany," "Outlines of British Fungology," "Handbook of British Mosses;" of numerous papers in the Transactions of the Linnæan Society, the "Zoological Journal," "Hooker's Journal of Botany," "Hooker's Himalayan Journal," and the "Antarctic and New Zealand Flora," and of a sermon preached at the Commemoration of Benefactors at Christ's College, Cambridge.
BERNARD, The Hon. and Right Rev. Charles Brodrick, Bishop of Tuam, Killala, and Achonry, son of the second Earl of Bandon, born Jan. 4, 1811, and educated at Eton and Balliol College, Oxford, was ordained in 1835. He was made Vicar of Bantry in 1840, Rector of Kilbrogan, Senior Prebendary of Cork, and Rural Dean, in 1842, and was consecrated Bishop of this see in 1867. He is the author of "Sermons and Lectures," published by request.
BERNHARDT, Rosine, called Sarah, a French actress, born at Paris, Oct. 22, 1844. She is a Jewess; her mother was Dutch; her father was a Frenchman. She spent the greater part of her early life in Holland, visiting at the house of her grandfather, an Amsterdam optician. In 1858 she entered the Paris Conservatoire, became a pupil of MM. Provost and Samson, professor of elocution, gained a second prize for tragedy in 1861, and a second prize for comedy in 1862. She made her first public appearance on the stage at the Théâtre Français in Racine's "Iphigénie" and the "Valérie" of Scribe. She attracted hardly any notice, and after a brief withdrawal from the stage she reappeared at the Gymnase and the Porte Saint-Martin, in burlesque parts. In Jan. 1867 she returned to high art at the Odéon, playing several minor parts with much applause till she achieved a notable success in that of "Marie de Neuborg" in "Ruy Blas." She was thereupon recalled to the Théâtre Français, and first showed her higher power in "Andromaque" and "Junie;" but it was as "Berthe de Savigny" in the play of "Le Sphinx," performed in March, 1874, that she won the greatest applause. In 1879 she visited London with the other members of the Comédie Française, who on June 2 in that year began a series of brilliant performances at the Gaiety Theatre, under the direction of Mr. John Hollingshead. In the following year Mdlle. Bernhardt returned alone to the Gaiety, M. Coquelin, who was expected to accompany her, being prevented from doing so by his tenure at the Théâtre Français. About this time Mdlle. Bernhardt severed her connection with the Comédie Française, and was condemned to pay £4000 costs and damages for the breach of her engagement. In June, 1881, she again appeared in London at the Gaiety Theatre in "La Dame aux Camélias" for a short series of performances, and she afterwards made a most successful tour, from a pecuniary point of view, in the United States. In April, 1882, she was married in the church of St. Andrew, Wells Street, London, to M. Damala, a Greek gentleman.
BERT, Paul, a French physiologist and statesman, born at Auxerre, 19 Oct., 1833. He began his studies in the college of his native town, and then went to Paris, where he attended simultaneously the lectures in the Faculty of Law and the Faculty of Medicine. Appointed assistant at the course of lectures delivered by M. Claude Bernard in the College of France, he afterwards became professor in the Faculty of Science at Bordeaux,