the 1st regiment of the Foreign Legion. He was appointed Captain in the Zouaves in June, 1842; Major of the Native Skirmishers in Aug. 1846; Lieutenant-Colonel in Jan. 1850, first of the 7th regiment of the line and afterwards of the Zouaves; Colonel in Dec. 1851; Brigadier-General, Oct. 14, 1854; and General of Division, Aug. 12, 1857. During the Crimean war in 1855 he greatly distinguished himself at the battles of the Alma and Inkermann and in the assault on Sebastopol. He also took part in the Italian expedition of 1859. In May, 1869, he was appointed to the command of the second camp at Châlons, and in the following July nominated aide-de-camp to the Emperor. General Bourbaki played a conspicuous part in the Franco-German war. In Dec. 1870, he was appointed by the Delegate Government at Tours to the chief command of the first Army of the North, with General Borel as his Chief of Staff. After a series of engagements with the German forces, General Bourbaki was compelled to retreat in the direction of Switzerland, and at the close of the month of Jan. 1871, he was driven over the Swiss frontier with the remains of the army, consisting of about 80,000 men. The General attempted to commit suicide by shooting himself with a pistol, but the wound did not prove fatal. Subsequently he returned to France, and, in July, 1871, he was appointed to a military command at Lyons, where he suppressed several attempts at insurrection. Placed in command of the 14th Army Corps he held that post till Feb. 11, 1879, when he was replaced by General Farre.
BOURKE, The Right Hon. Robert, M.P., third son of the 5th Earl of Mayo, was born at Hayes, co. Meath, June 11, 1827, and educated at Enniskillen School, at Hall Place, Kent, and at Trinity College, Dublin. Called to the bar at the Inner Temple in 1852, he went the South Wales Circuit, and attended the Knutsford sessions for twelve years. Mr. Bourke also had a large business at the Parliamentary bar. He was elected M.P. for Lynn Regis, in the Conservative interest, at the general election of Dec. 1868, and he still represents that borough in the House of Commons. When Mr. Disraeli came into power in Feb. 1874, Mr. Bourke was appointed Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, and he held that office till April, 1880, when he was added to the Privy Council. He has travelled in America, India, and the Holy Land, and contributed his views upon these countries to various magazines. Mr. Bourke is also the author of "Parliamentary Precedents." He married in 1863 Lady Susan Georgiana, eldest daughter of the first Marquis of Dalhousie.
BOUSFIELD, The Right Rev. Henry Brougham, D.D., Bishop of Pretoria, was educated at Caius College, Cambridge (B.A. 1855; M.A. 1858; D.D., jure dignitatis, 1878). He was curate of All Saints, Braishfield, Hampshire, 1855–56; perpetual curate of the same parish, 1856–61; rector of St. Maurice, with St. Mary-Kalendre, and St. Peter-Colebrook, Winchester, 1861–70; and vicar of Andover, from 1870 till 1878, when he was appointed Bishop of Pretoria (Transvaal). He is the author of "Notes for Catechizing," 1872.
BOUSSINGAULT, Jean-Baptiste-Joseph-Dieudonné, chemist, member of the Institute, born in Paris, Feb. 2, 1802, was educated in the Mining School of St. Étienne, and on leaving it accepted the offer made to him by an English company of proceeding to America to recover and work certain ancient mines which had been neglected for many years. All went well at first; but when the colonies of Spain declared their independence, an end was put to the enterprise. It was at this time he made the acquaintance of Humboldt, who was exploring the New World.