various historical, antiquarian, and political subjects in many of the newspapers and magazines of the day, and notably in Fraser and the Contemporary Review. His sermon preached in the Chapel Royal, Dublin, towards the end of Lord Carlisle's vice-royalty, in which he openly denounced the wickedness of the State Church in Ireland, which applied the whole of the ancient ecclesiastical revenues for the benefit of a mere fraction of the people, excited astonishment, and was strongly censured by the organs of the Conservative party, and led to Dr. Brady's omission from the list of chaplains under Lord Kimberley's lieutenancy. The works published by Dr. Brady are "Clerical and Parochial Records of Cork, Cloyne, and Ross," 3 vols.; "Remarks on Irish Church Temporalities;" "Facts or Fictions;" "The McGillicuddy Papers;" "The Irish Reformation; or, the Alleged Conversion of the Irish Bishops at the Accession of Queen Elizabeth; and the assumed descent of the present Established Hierarchy in Ireland from the ancient Irish Church Disproved;" "State Papers concerning the Irish Church in the Time of Queen Elizabeth;" and "Essays on the English State Church in Ireland," 1869. Dr. Brady's writings undoubtedly facilitated the progress of Mr. Gladstone's Irish Church Abolition Bill, and were copiously quoted in and out of Parliament. His work on the Irish Reformation went through five editions, and provoked innumerable replies. Upon the passing of the Irish Church Act, Dr. Brady, whose health had been seriously affected by an attack of bronchitis, went to Rome, and from the archives there extracted many particulars concerning the ecclesiastical affairs of England, Scotland, and Ireland. He afterwards resigned his rectory of Donoughpatrick, and was received into the Catholic Church by Mgr. Kirby, of the Irish College at Rome, in May, 1873. He has since written a learned work on "The Episcopal Succession in England, Scotland, and Ireland," the third volume of which was published at Rome in 1877.
BRAHMS, Johannes, musical composer, was born May 7, 1833, at Hamburg, where his father played the double-bass in the orchestra. He received his first instructions in music from his father, and then studied under Eduard Marxsen. Schumann's warm recommendation in the Neuen Zeitschrift für Musik (Oct. 28, 1853) called the attention of musicians, of the public, and of the publishers to the young man, who subsequently made slow but constant progress on the road to permanent artistic fame. After several years of activity as director of music at the court of Lippe-Detmold he devoted a considerable period of time to assiduous study and composition in his native town. Thence he proceeded, in 1862, to Vienna, which city became his second home, for although he quitted it after holding for one year the post of director of the Singing Academy (1864), he never felt comfortable in the other towns which he visited—Hamburg, Zürich, Baden-Baden—and accordingly, in 1869, he returned to the Austrian capital. He conducted from 1872 to 1874 the concerts of the Society of Amateur Musicians, until Herbeck, who had in the meantime resigned his post of Court Director of Music, resumed the functions of that office. Brahms then resided for some time away from Vienna, namely, at Heidelberg, but returned in 1878. Undoubtedly Brahms is entitled to rank among the greatest composers now living. At first he followed the "new German" school which had been inaugurated by Schumann in the journal already mentioned, but when the heat of youth had been replaced by calmer reflection, he inclined more to the classical school, so that now he is criticised by the Baireuther Blätter, and re-