Dr. Abbott has published the following theological works:—"Bible Lessons," 1872; "Cambridge Sermons," 1875; "Through Nature to Christ," 1877. His other works are, a "Shakespearian Grammar," 1870; an edition of Bacon's "Essays," 1876; "Bacon and Essex," 1877; and an "English Grammar." Dr. Abbott is also the author of two religious romances, published anonymously:—"Philochristus: Memoirs of a Disciple of our Lord," 1878; and "Onesimus: Memoirs of a Disciple of St. Paul," 1882.
ABBOTT, Lyman, D.D., son of the late Jacob Abbott, born at Roxbury, Massachusetts, Dec. 18, 1835. He graduated at the University of New York in 1853, was ordained a Congregational minister in 1860, and was pastor of various churches until 1865, when he became Secretary of the Freedmen's Commission until 1868. Subsequently he devoted himself mainly to literary pursuits. He had previously, in conjunction with his brothers, written two novels, "Conecut Corners," and "Matthew Carnaby," under the nom de guerre of "Benauly," formed from the initial syllables of their respective names (Benjamin, Austin, and Lyman). Besides several smaller works he has published "Jesus of Nazareth: His Life and Teachings," 1869; "Old Testament Shadows of New Testament Truths," 1870; "A Layman's Story," 1873; "Commentary on the New Testament," 1875–77; edited two volumes of Henry Ward Beecher's Sermons, 1868; a volume of his "Morning Exercises," 1870; and, with T. C. Conant, a "Dictionary of Religious Knowledge." Later he was one of the editors of Harper's Monthly Magazine, and principal editor of the Illustrated Christian Weekly. At present he is the editor of the Christian Union. Two of his brothers, Benjamin V. (born in 1830), and Austin (born in 1831), are prominent lawyers in New York, and have prepared several legal works.
ABDUL-HAMID II., Sultan of Turkey, was born Sept. 22, 1842, being a younger son and the fourth child of Abdul-Medjid, the Sultan who died in 1861. On Aug. 31, 1876, he succeeded his brother, Mourad V., who was deposed, on proof of his insanity, after a reign of three months. He was solemnly girt with the sword of Othman, in the Eyoub mosque, Constantinople, on Sept. 7. About this time the Servians, who had been at war with the Sublime Porte, were completely defeated; but, after the capture of Alexinatz by the Turks, the Russian ambassador at Constantinople presented an ultimatum to the Turkish Government demanding the immediate conclusion of an armistice for six weeks, which was accordingly granted, Nov. 1. The New Turkish Constitution, devised by Midhat Pasha, providing for the establishment of representative institutions on the West European model, was promulgated at Constantinople, and in the provinces of the Empire on Dec. 23. In the same month a Conference of the representatives of the Great Powers was held at Constantinople, but their attempts to avert a war were unsuccessful. On Jan. 18, 1877, a resolution was passed by the Grand Council of Turkey, presided over by Midhat Pasha, rejecting absolutely all the proposals of the European Powers for administrative reforms, on the ground that their acceptance "would sacrifice the independence of the Empire:" the result being that a week later all the plenipotentiaries left Constantinople. On March 1 a treaty of peace was concluded between Turkey and Servia on the basis of the status quo ante bellum. But the Porte had soon to face a more formidable antagonist, for on April 21 a circular despatch from the Russian Government to the European Powers announced a declaration of war against Turkey. During the sanguinary conflict which ensued the Turkish troops