a short stay in Leipzig, he resided from 1858 to 1861 as musical teacher at Cologne, and was very assiduous in composing. On the death of his father, in 1861, he set out on an extensive tour of study, which after brief stays at Berlin, Leipzig, Vienna, Dresden, and Munich, ended at Mannheim, where his opera "Lorelei" (after the text written by Geibel for Mendelssohn) was produced in 1863. At Mannheim also, between 1862 and 1864, he wrote the chorus-works, "Frithjof," "Römischer Triumphgesang," "Gesang der heiligen drei Könige," and "Flucht der heiligen Familie." In 1864–65 he was again on his travels, visiting Hamburg, Hanover, Dresden, Breslau, Munich, Brussels, and Paris. Then he brought out his "Frithjof" with extraordinary success at Aix-la-Chapelle, Leipzig, and Vienna. From 1865 to 1867 he was musical director at Coblenz, and from 1867 to 1870 director of the court choir at Sondershausen. At Coblentz he wrote, among other things, his well-known first concerto for the violin, and at Sondershausen two symphonies and portions of a Mass. The opera "Hermione," which was produced in 1872 at Berlin, where Bruch resided from 1871 to 1873, had only a succès d'estime. The chorus "Odysseus" likewise belongs to the period of the composer's residence at Berlin. After he had been five years (1873–78) at Bonn, devoting his time exclusively to composing "Arminius," "The Song of the Bell," and his second concerto for the violin, and after he had paid two visits to this country for the purpose of producing some of his works, he became, in 1878, on the resignation of Hockhausen. Director of Stern's Singing Academy at Berlin; and in 1880 he was nominated to succeed Sir Julius Benedict as Director of the Philharmonic Society at Liverpool. In 1881 he married the vocalist, Miss Tuczek, of Berlin. In 1883 it was announced that he intended to leave Liverpool and to go to Breslau as Director of the Music there. Undoubtedly Bruch is one of the most celebrated of modern German composers, and in the composition of choruses he ranks next to Brahms. His great works for mixed choruses, solos and orchestra, "Odysseus," "Arminius," and the "Song of the Bell," as well as those for a male choir, "Frithjof," "Salamis," and "Normannenzug," are the chief productions of this composer. His first concerto for the violin is highly prized by all players of that instrument. The chief characteristic of the compositions of this master is the joy and beauty of tone which he never sacrifices for the purpose of creating an effect. This principle separates him widely from the "new German School," and even puts him remarkably in relief as compared with Brahms.
BRUGSCH, Heinrich Karl, Ph.D., a distinguished philologist and Egyptologist, who by his researches on the subject of hieroglyphics has attained a European celebrity. He was born at Berlin, Feb. 18, 1827, and before leaving the Gymnasium evinced his fondness for Egyptological studies by a Latin treatise on the Demotic writing, 1847. His early publications procured for him the patronage of King Frederick William IV., under whose auspices he studied the monuments of Egyptian antiquity in the museums of Paris, London, Turin, and Leyden. In 1853 he made his first visit to Egypt, and was present at some of the important excavations conducted under the supervision of the French archæologist, M. Mariette. Returning to Berlin, he was appointed Keeper of the Egyptian Museum there in 1854. In 1860 he accompanied Baron Minutoli on his embassy to Persia, and after the death of the Baron he himself assumed the direction of the embassy. Subsequentiy he was ap-