BUNSEN, Robert Wilhelm Eberard, chemist, born March 13, 1811, at Göttingen, where his father was professor of Occidental literature; studied in the university the physical and natural sciences, and completed his education at Paris, Berlin, and Vienna. Having taken his degrees for teaching chemistry at Göttingen in 1833, he succeeded Wöhler three years later as professor of this science in the Polytechnic Institution at Cassel. In 1838 he was appointed Assistant Professor in the University of Marburg; became Titular Professor in 1841, then Director of the Chemical Institute. In 1851 he passed to the University of Breslau, and in 1852 to the University of Heidelberg. Some years ago Professor Bunsen declined a call to Berlin which he received at the same time as Professor Kirchhoff, with whom he is the founder of stellar chemistry. He has made many important discoveries, and the charcoal pile which bears his name is in very extensive use. From the spectrum analysis down to the simplest manipulations of practical chemistry, his luminous discoveries have rendered the most distinguished services to the science which he adorns; but he possesses at the same time the rare gift of being an eminent and most inspiring teacher, and his lessons are attended by students from England and all parts of the Continent. The University of Leyden conferred on him the honorary degree of M.D. in Feb., 1875. In July, 1877, the University of Heidelberg commemorated the 25th anniversary of Professor Bunsen's election to the Chair of Experimental Chemistry. Students of all faculties joined in a torchlight procession, which was followed by the traditional symposium, while a deputation presented the congratulations of the Academical Council. In Jan., 1883, he was appointed one of the eight Foreign Associates of the Paris Academy of Sciences.
BURDETT-COUTTS, The Right Hon. Angela Georgina, Baroness, is the youngest daughter of the late Sir Francis Burdett, Baronet, and grand-daughter of Mr. Thomas Coutts. In 1837 she succeeded to the great wealth of Mr. Coutts, through his widow, once the fascinating Miss Mellon, who died Duchess of St. Albans. The extensive power of benefiting her less fortunate fellow-creatures thus conferred, the Baroness Burdett-Coutts has wisely exercised, chiefly by working out her own well-considered projects. A consistently liberal churchwoman in purse and opinions, her munificence to the Establishment is historical. Besides contributing large sums towards building new churdLes and new schools in various poor districts throughout the country, Miss Coutts erected and endowed, at her sole cost, the handsome church of St. Stephen's, Westminster, with its three schools and parsonage; and more recently, another church at Carlisle. She endowed, at an outlay of £50,000, the three colonial bishoprics of Adelaide, Cape Town, and British Columbia; besides founding an establishment in South Australia for the improvement of the aborigines. She also supplied the funds for Sir Henry James's Topographical Survey of Jerusalem; and offered to restore the ancient aqueducts of Solomon to supply that city with water—a work, however, which the Government promised to (but did not) fulfil. In no direction are the Baroness's sympathies so fully expressed as in favour of the poor and unfortunate of her own sex. The course taught at the national schools and sanctioned by the Privy Council included many literary accomplishments which a young woman of humble grade may not require on leaving school; but the more familiar arts essential to her after-career were overlooked. By her ladyship's exertions the teaching of common things, such as sewing and other