land. In Feb., 1873, he was ap- pomted Prmcipal of the University of Glasgow in the room of the kite Dr. Ba»day. Principal Caird has pnbliahed a Yolnme of " Sermons/' 1858 ; " The Universal Beligion : a Leeture delivered in Westminster Abbey on the Day of Intercession for Missions, Nov. 30, 1874 ;" and " An Introdoction to the Philosophy of Beligion," 1880.
CAIRNS (Eabl), Thb Right HoH. Hugh MacCalmont, second aom of the late William Cairns^ Esq., of Cnltra, connty Down, Ire- land, was born in 1819. He re- ceived his education at Trinity College, Dublin, where he was first dafis in classics, and obtained other academical honours. In Jan., 1844, he was called to the English bar at the Middle Temple, and he soon ac- quired an extensive practice in the coturta of Equity. In July, 1852, he was returned to the House of Commons as one of the members for Be^ast, and he continued to re- pireeent that city in the Conserva- tive interest until his elevation to the judicial bench. He was ap- pointed one of Her Midesty's Coun- sel and a bencher of Lincoln's Inn in 1856. When Lord Derby formed his administration in Feb., 1858, he appointed to the office of Solicitor- General Mr. Cairns, who on this occasion received Ihe honour of kmghthood. It is worthy of note that the earliest Bill he submitted to Parliament related to Chancery Beform, on which subject he has since proposed several important measures. Sir Hugh Cairns first showed himself to be a gpreat par- liamentary orator in the celebrated debate of four nights' duration in May, 1858, concerning Lord EUen- borough's censure of Lord Can- ning's proclamation to the inhabi- tants oi our Indian Empire. Many ci his subsequent speeches in the House of Commons, and more re- cently in the House of Peers, have justly been regarded as master- ^ eloquence* "When the
Conservative administration re- signed in June, 1859, Sir Hugh Cairns' first brief tenure of office came to an end. On the return of Lord Derby to power in June, 1866, he was appointed Attorney-General, and he worthily occupied for a few months the post which Sir Roun- dell Palmer (now Lord Selbome) had held under the Liberal adminis- tration. The first vacancy which had occurred in the Court of Chan- cery (with the exception of the woolsack) for the long x>eriod of fourteen years, was occasioned on Oct. 1, 1866, by the retirement of Sir James Knight Bruce, and Sir Hugh Cairns was ^pointed to suc- ceed that veteran judge as Lord Justice of the Court of Appeal; being in the following Feb. (1867) raised to the i)eerage as Baron Cairns of Garmoyle, in the county of Antrim. He became Lord High Chancellor of Ghreat Britain in Feb., 1868, and he continued to hold that office until the resignation of Mr. Disraeli's ministry in Dec., 1868, after which time, however, he con- tinued to take an active part in the legislative and judicial business of the House of Lords. In Feb., 1874, on the return of the Conservative partv to power, he was reappointed Lord High ChanceUor of Great Britain, and he held that office till April, 1880. In Sept., 1878, he was created a Viscount and Earl of the United Kingdom by the titles of Viscount Garmoyle, in the county of Antrim, and Earl Cairns. His lordship was made LL.D. of Cam- bridge in 1862 ; D.C.L. of Oxford in 1863 ; and was elected Chancel- lor of the University of Dublin in 1867.
CAIBOLI,BHKBDBTTO,an Italian statesman, born in 1826 at GropeUo, near Pavia. BUs father was a sur- geon, who, in 1848, was elected by his fellow-citizens to rule their commune. While a student in ^e University of Pavia, Benedetto Cairoli, in, 1848, conspired and fought as a volunteer against the