Austrians. In 1851 he became an exile in Piedmont, where he re- mained till 1859, in which year he again took up arms for the libera- tion of Italy as one of the "Cac- ciatori deUe Alpi." He was also one of the " mille '* in the expedi- tion in 18G0, when he was wounded in the leg at the siege of Palermo. In 1866 he fought in the Trentino, and in 1867 at Monterotondo and Montana. Up to the time of the adyent of the Left to power in 1876, Cairoli had never explicitly de- clared himself to have left his old Bepublican tendencies behind him, and definitively accepted the Con- stitutional Monarchy of Italy. Since that time, however, perhaps led in some degree by his confidence in his friend Depretis, he accepted the Monarchy. Si^or Cairoli has lived in an atmosphere of revolu- tion, and has always breathed de- fiance to the Vatican and to the Church. In March, 1878, when a new Ministry was formed, shortly after the accession of King Hum- bert, Signer Cairoli was placed at the head of it, being appointed President of the Council, without portfolio. On Oct. 23, in the same year, all the Ministers resigned, and Signer Cairoli, the Premier, was entrusted with the task of forming a new Cabinet. Soon afterwards (Nov. 17), as King Hum- bert, in company with the Queen and Signer Cairoli, was driving into Naples, a man named Giovanni Passanante attempted to stab ELis Majesty with a poniard. The at- tempt was fortmiately frustrated by Signer Cairoli, who received a severe wound, while the King es- caped with a mere scratch. Signer Cairoli received from the Chambers and the Italian people the warmest congratulations, in which tiie Sovereigns and most distinguished statesmen of Europe joined, but these ovations could not avert a new ministerial crisis. In the Chamber of Deputies a motion of oonfidence in the internal policy of
the Government was rejected by 257 against 183 votes (Dec. 11, 1878), and the Ministers thereupon re- signed. The Depretis ministry which was then formed was overthrown after half a year's tenure of power, and was succeeded by a new combi- nation of the Left under Signer Cairoli, who was in turn comp&ed (Nov., 1879) to reconstruct his ad- ministration and to bring in Signer Depretis as Minister of the In- terior. On May 14, 1881, the Ministry resigned, after the French expedition to Tunis, as their policy in regard to it had rendered them highly unpopular. •
CALCUTTA, Bishop op. (flee Johnson.)
CALDECOTT, Eandolph, artist, was born in 1846, at Chester, and educated at Henry VIII.'s Sdiool, in that city. He received no art training. He was elected a mem- ber of Vie Manchester Academy of .Arts in 1880, and of the Institate of Painters in Water Colours in 1882. Mr. Caldecott has exhibited works of painting and sculpture at the Boyal Academy, and the Qroar venor Gallery. Among the numerous books illustrated by him are Wash- ington Irving's "Old Christmas," 1875; "Bracebridge HaU," 1876; Mrs. Comyns Carr's " North Italian Folk," 1877; and Mr. H. Black- bum's "Breton Folk," 1879. In 1878 he began a series of " Picture Books," with "John Gilpin," and " The House that Jack Built ;" and he has since produced two books each year. In 1883 he published "A Sketch Book," and " Some of ^sop's Fables with Modem In- stances." Mr. Caldecott has made many drawings of original subjects for the Oraphie, most of which have been reproduced in colours; and he has occasionally contributed to Punch and other periodicals.
CALDEEON, Philip Hsbmo- GBNxs, B.A., son of the Bev. Juan Calderon, was born at Poitiers in 1833, studied at Mr. Leigh's aca- demy and in the atelier of M. Piooi