CAEUS— CASTELAE Y RISSOLL.
retirement in 1871. Mr. Carruthers has conducted many orig^inal inves- tigations on living and fossil plants, and has published numerous me- moirs on fossil botany in the jour- nals and transactions of learned societies. He re-edited Lindley and Hutton's " Fossil Flora," and was afterwards engaged in preparing an account of Qie fossil plants of Britain, supplementary to that work.
CAEUS, The Ebv. William, M.A., born in 1804, was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. in the highest honours both in classics and mathe- matics in 1827, and was elected Fellow of his college. He was Senior Fellow and Senior Dean of Trinity College, Incumbent of Great St. Mary's, and a select preacher in the university in 1854, 1859, and 1866 ; was appointed a Canon Eesi- dentiary of Winchester, Vicar of Eomsey, and Eural Dean in 1851 ; and is Proctor for the Chapter in Convocation. He is the author of " Memoirs of the late Eev. Charles Simeon." A Greek Testament prize, called the Cams Prize, in remem- brance of his long services there, has been established in the Uni- versity of Cambridge.
CAEVALHO-MIOLAN, Madame Mabib Cabolike, a celebrated French vocalist, born at Marseilles, Dec. 81, 1827, attended M. Duprez' class at the Paris Conservatoire from 1843 to 1847, and gained the first prize for singing. She made her d4but in 1849, at uie Ox>^ra Comique, where, between that date and the end of 1854, she either reproduced or created a number of w^-known characters in"Giralda," "Le Pr^ aux Clercs," "La Cour de C^li- m^ne," and "Les Noces de Jean- nette." In 1853 Mdlle. Miolan be- came the wife of M. L^n Carvaille or Carvalho, who, since 1849, had been a singer at the Op^ra Comique. This union was a most unhappy one. In 1856, whilst his wife was engaged as first cantatrice at the Th^A^re
Lyrique, M. Carvalho happened to be the principal creditor of the management of that theatre, and the result was that the licence was transferred to him. In 1862 he was appointed its manager, but fortune was not favourable to him, and eventually he was made a bankrupt. A judicial separation was obtained by his wife, who, it appeared, had not received for four years a single shilling of her salary. Madame Carvalho-Miolan played in her hus- band's theatre, with great applause, the principal parts in "La Fan- chonette," " Les Noces de Figaro," "La Eeine Topaze," "Mireille," and other popular pieces. During the season of 1860 she appeared si the Italian Opera in London, where she achieved a brilliant success. Since that time she has sung both on the stage and at concerts in this and other countries. Madame Car- valho-Miolan possesses a voice of wonderful flexibility and compass, and can render, without apparent effort, the most difficult musical phrases.
CASHEL, Bishop op. (See Day, Db.)
CASSAGNAC. (See Granibb de Cassagnac.)
C ASTEL AE Y EISSOLL, Emilio, a Spanish politician, born in 1882, became notorious, early in his career, in consequence of his ex- treme democratic and socialistic opinions, which he expounded in various Liberal joumalB. For a time he was Professor of History and Philosophy in the University of Madrid, and in 1866 he took a leading part in the revolutionary movement, which was put down by Serrano. On this occasion he was condemned to death, but he made ffood his escape, and sought refuge nrst at Geneva and afterwards in France. When the revolution broke out in Sept. 1868, he re- turned to his native country, and was one of the most energetic leaders of the republican move- ment. He exerted himself to the