Page:Men of the Time, eleventh edition.djvu/242

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1LB.C^. and L^S^. in. 18ol> smd in 18S2 became a880<aated in practice withthe late I>r. ^Westall, of Croy- don, in which town h.e has since cootmoed to reside. Dr. 'Westall hmg retired in 1860^ Mr. Car- pentCT entered into partnership first with Mr. Whitling, and afterwards with Dr. H. T. Ijankester. Mr. Caipenier gradoated M.B. at the Univeraity of Ijondon in 1855, and UJ). in 1859. In I860 he became medical attendant uponI>r. Sunmer, Archbifihop of Canterbury, and he wu afterwards medical adviser to Aichhiahops Ifongley and Tait. In 1859 Dr. Carpenter was appointed a member of the Croydon Local Board d Health, on whicli he oontinaed to serve, acting occasionally as chair- man, until his election as President oi. the Council of the British Medi- cal Association in 1879. His con- nection with the Board of Health was fruitf nl of resolts in the in- terests of sanitary science. He was chiefly inatnunental in the exten- sion and soccessf xd working of the Oroydon Sewage Farm, and the Public Baths at Croydon were Uke- wriae established by him. To his exertions also, was due the ventila- tion of the sewers. In 1870 he was appointed a magistrate for Surrey. I>r. Carpenter has filled numerous local offices of importance. He has been President of the Croydon liiterary and Scientific Institute, of the Croydon School of Art, of the Microeoopical Club and Natural History Society, and of the Croydon Temperance Society. He also took an active part in the establishment of the Croydon Cottage Hospital and of the Croydon Provident Dispen- sary. In 1878 he was Orator of the Medical Society of London, and took for the sul>J€K^ of his discourse •• Alcoholic Drinks." He has also been a member of the Health Com- mittee of the Social Science Associa- tion, said Vice-chairman of the CkKincil of the Sanitary Institute. He was President of tiie Health Sec- tion at the Croydon Sanitary Con-

gress in 1872, and in Dec. 1881 he presided over the Domestic Health Section at the Brighton Congress. Dr. Carpenter is Examiner in Public Health in the University of London, and a member of the Court of Ex- aminers at the Apothecaries' Com- pany. In 1881 he was nominated a member of the Boyal Commission appointed to inquire into the con- dition of the London hospitals for small-pox and fever cases, and into the means of preventing the spread of infection. Among his lite- rary productions are : " A History of Sanitary Progress in Croydon, 1856 ; " Hints on House Drainage," 1866 ; " Physiological and Mechani- cal Aspect of Sewage Irrigation ; " a course of " Lectures on Preventive Medicine," delivered at St.Thomas's Hospital in 1877 ; " Alcoholic Drinks as Diet, as Medicines, and as Poi- sons ; " " Influence of Sewer Gas on Public Health;" "Causation of Epidemic Disease ; " " Address on Public Medicine," delivered before the British Medical Association at Sheffield in 1876 ; " The First Prin- ciples of Sanitary Work ; " a paper on the " Causation of Scarlatina, read before the Society of Medical Offi- cers of Health, 1881 ; the chapter on "Medical Etiquette" in "Glenn's Manual of Laws affecting Medical Men ; " a paper on " Fogs and Lon- don Smoke," read before the Society of Arts in Nov. 1880, which com- mimication was initiated by a cor- respondence in the Times, and which resulted in the establishment of an Exhibition now held at South Ken- sington ; " Health at School ; " and a series of articles on " School Sur- gery " in the Practical Teacher,

CARRUTHERS, William, F.R.S., F.L.S, was born at Moffat, Scotland, in 1830, and educated at the academy there, and afterwards at the University and New College, Edinburgh. He entered the British Museum as As si stant in the De- partment of Botany in 1859 ; and I succeeded Mr. J. J. Bennett, as I Keeper of that Department, on his