1856. In 1857 he was placed in charge of the chemical department of Union College^ and in 1858 was appointed to the Chair of Chemistry in the New York College of Phar- macy. In 1864 he was made Pro- fessor of Analytical Chemistry in the School of Mines connected with Columbia College, New York. In 1865 he was appointed chemist to the New York Metropolitan Board of Health, of which he became President in 1878. In 1870, in connection with his brother, he established the American Chemist, a monthly periodical, in which the results of his principal investiga- tions have appeared. He became connected with the New York Col- lege of Physicians and Surgeons in 1872. He has published "The Inaugural Dissertation," 1856 ; "Report on Water for Locomo- tives," 1866 ; " Examination of Various Bocks and Minerals," which api>eared in the geologiod reports of Iowa and Wisconsin ; " In- vestigations on Mineral Waters," and papers on the water supply of cities, on petroleum, on the purifi- cation of coal-gas ; and has prepared the successive annual reports of the Board of Health ; and has also con- tributed numerous scientific articles to Johnson's " Universal Cyclo- pesdia," 1874-77.
CHANNINa, William Hbnby, was born in Boston, May 25, 1810. He graduated at Harvard College in 1829, and at the Cambridge Divinity School in 1833, and was ordained at Cincinnati in 1855. He has been pastor of several religious societies in America. In 1857 he came to England, and succeeded Mr. James Martineau as minister of the Hope Street Unitarian Chapel in Liverpool. Returning to America about 1866, he was for a time minister of a Unitarian Church in Washington. In the winter of 1869-70 he delivered a course of lec- tures before the Lowell Institute at Boston. Subsequently he returned to England. He has contributed
largely to periodical literature ; has translated Jouflfroy's " Ethics," 1840 ; written a " Memoir of William Ellery Channing," the noted Unitarian clergyman, 1848 ; "Memoirs of James H. Perkins," 1851 ; in conjunction with Salph Waldo Emerson and James Free- man Clarke, " Memoirs of Margaret Fuller Ossoli," 1852 ; "TheChristian Church and Social Reform;" and " The Perfect Life," a posthumous volume of the Sermons of William Ellery Channing, with a preface, 1872.
CHAO PHA CHULALONKORN, first or principal King of Siam, second son of the preceding king, Chao Pha Mongkout, was born Sept. 27, 1854, and ascended the throne on the death of his father, Oct. 1, 1868. During his minority the regency was intrusted by the Royal Council to the Minister of War, Chao Pha Sri Sury Wongse.
CHAPMAN, Gbnbral Sib Fbb- DBRICK Edwabd, G.C.B., son of Richard Chapman, Esq., of Gatchell, Somersetshire, was born in British Guiana, in 1816. After passing through the Royal Militai^ Aca- demy at Woolwich, he enterod the corps of Royal Engineers in 1835, be<»me a captain in 1846, a colonel in the army in 1855, and a lien- tenant-colonel of the Royal Engi- neers in 1859. At the commencement of the year 1854 he was sent on a special mission to Constantinople, and was employed in surveying the positions in Turkey previous to the arrival of the British army in that country. Colonel Chapman was present at the battles of the Alma and Inkerman, served throughout the siege of Sebastopol, during the early i»rt of which he was director of the left attack, and during the latter part executive engineer to the forces. As a reward for his valuable services he received a medal with three clasps, the Sar> dinian and Turkish medals, the 3rd class of the Medjidie, besides b^ng appointed a Companion of the Bath